It makes him feel good about himself. Positive politeness minimizes the threat to the hearer’s positive face. It also tries to avoid conflicts. Brown and Levinson referred to the function of positive politeness strategies as one of minimizing the threat of an FTA by assuring that the speaker has a positive regard for him or her (1987, p. 75,317). 1.4.3- Negative politeness It is oriented to the addressee’s negative face.
Audience’s feeling and attitude is so fundamental in bolstering one organization. Hopes of an organization in reducing the offensiveness increased whenever it tries to bolster up by the audience’s positive perception. A second possibility is to try to minimize the negative feelings associated with the wrongful act (Benoit, 1997). The organization is able to reduce the offensiveness to the lowest possible level or prevent it from increasing beyond the level if it can minimize the risk of an unpleasant situation and make it seems less significant than it really is. Third, a firm can employ differentiation, in which the act is distinguished from other similar but more offensive actions (Benoit, 1997).
That’s a way of thinking is beneficial for understanding the idea of toleration and the virtue of tolerance; it emphasizes the fact that toleration is directed by an agent toward something realized as negative. Also, it is important for toleration concept to be considered as offensive and in an important sense wrong or bad. In the case it was missed, we can’t speak of toleration but indifference. Objection components also need to be balanced by an acceptance component, which will not remove the negative judgments, but it would give certain positive reasons that shows that the negative ones in similar context. Moreover, there are four conceptions of toleration that developed understandings of what toleration consists in which can all e present in society at the same time, so the confliction about toleration definition may also be understood as a conceptual conflict.
• Positive politeness: Seeks to make a good relationship between parties; respects a person 's need to be liked and understood. Direct speech acts, cursing and dismissing Grice 's maxims can be considered aspects of positive politeness because: • they show an consciousness that the relationship is strong enough to cope with what would normally be considered impolite (in the popular understanding of the term); • they articulate an awareness of the other person 's values, which accomplishes the person 's will to be accepted. Some cultures seem to prefer one of these kinds of politeness over the other. In this way politeness is culturally bound. Being polite means being aware of and admiring the feelings of other people.
Politically correct language is a language of respect, it is intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. First, politically correct is based on the idea from Sapir-Whorf that language shapes thought. It is a Linguistic Determinism which states that the language we speak determines how we perceive and think about the world. Therefore, changing a discriminative word can also change the negative thoughts associated with what it signifies. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is now no longer accepted in its absolute form, but the weak version of the hypothesis is generally accepted by scholars.
Rules generally promote the greater good, it is intended to guide us to make the best decisions for what needs to be done. Two different forms of Rule utilitarianism, firstly strong rule utilitarianism were the rules are absolute and give no reason to break the rules at any time or place. A weak rule utilitarian could be prepaired to brake rules for the greater good , which offers possible solutions to the weaknesses of strong rule rules . rules can help people with less cognitive ability to benefit each other in the long run. utilitarian rules can help humans understand both higher and lower quality of
Blocking the message is accomplished by condescending the message, questioning the source or even the messenger. The solutions to the issue of message blocking are: to identify the perfect moderate amount of fear to use, to use images instead of just texts since visual imagery is more difficult to block than text alone, and to provide self affirmation or encourage gratitude to the person before providing the negative message. Self-affirmation is a process by which people are asked to reflect good things about themselves. Gratitude interventions persuade people to focus on the good areas in their life that they can feel grateful for. People feel better once they are feeling more grateful or self-affirmed and therefore, they feel less threatened by messages that tell them to change their
Or does the word choice need to be a little softer to avoid face threading acts or any negative implications stemming from your word choice? Mitigation markers are a particularly useful form of indirect speech and are extremely powerful in face-threatening situations or just merely in daily life. Mitigation markers are a diverse set of conversational devices that are used to achieve indirectness. They can be used in expressions of opinion, information inquiries, and often times come in the form of “negative politeness”. Mitigation markers are used to soften the blow of a negative
Goffman believed that speakers maintain face through face-work, which is “actions taken by a person to make whatever he is doing consistent with face. Face-work serves to counteract incidents” (Goffman, 1967: 12). In other words, when an action threatens face, the speaker uses face saving practices to balance his embarrassment and hence the embarrassment that he and others might have over his embarrassment. These face saving practices often become habitual and standardized; each person, group, and society have their own repertoire of practices. Interactants make their selection of possible practices, but it does not mean that they are identical for every individual, group, or society.
In these maxims, the first and the second form a pair as well as the third and the fourth. Coming to the explanation, the tact maxim focuses on the hearer. It says ‘minimize cost to other’ and ‘maximize benefit to other’. Cutting (2002) explains that the first part of this maxim fits in with Brown and Levinson’s negative politeness strategy of minimizing imposition while the second part reflects the positive politeness strategy of attending to the hearer’s interests, wants and needs. The next is maxim of generosity.