Poverty can be defined as the lack of means necessary to meet a person’s basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. Poverty is a worldwide problem that affects people emotionally and often result in the death of thousands of people annually. Some may say that poverty can be caused because one’s poor choices but little did they know, it is simply because of the social and economic effects that society plays on them. Social and economic effects such as discrimination, financial constraints and the lack of opportunities available to those in poverty are just some of the common setbacks that people who undergo poverty deal with on a daily basis. The first factor that leads to the condition of poverty is discrimination.
Poverty can be defined as a lack of material resources to meet the human needs and be able to live comfortably. Also, the economy of a country can be affected by international factors and internal factors. However, to define what is poverty, we must first analyze the socio-economic part of each region to see the lifestyle that predominates population. In social stratification, it is defined as the division of the people who make up a society in different groups arranged hierarchically. As a result, the poverty rate in the United States has increased in recent years.
This term focuses on mass population which deflects from the individual issues which attribute to the creation of these groups. “Social classes make up all class situations within which individual and generational mobility is easy and typical -Roth and Wittich t1968, p.302 (pg.217Social Inequality). Status can be described an individual or groups ability to acquire resources through means of consumerism. “Status groups are ranked in terms of the consumption of goods as represented by special styles of life” (pg. 218 Social Inequality).
C Potgieter, 1998). Rural poverty is characterised by overcrowded living conditions with poor infrastructure. People in rural areas are dependent on earnings from parents because usually the grandparents take care of the grandchildren. These people suffer nutritional disorders, illiteracy is high and children may go without education. The urban poor live in shacks that provide insufficient shelter.
It is also characterized by many different ways such as unequal salary, limited cultural resources, unequal access to education, and most of all, the inequitable treatment given by the judicial system, police, and many more, may it be governmental or non-governmental in other words, Social Injustice. Social Inequality can be classified into two ways: the inequality of condition and Inequality of opportunities (Crossman, 2017). Unequal access to education, limited cultural resources, and the other things mentioned above fall under inequality of condition wherein people in lower classes are deprived or given less than the people belonging to the upper class. With opportunities, it deals with how people can survive their everyday living with grabbing chances to produce money for certain purposes. Jencks (1988) points out that opportunity can be additionally a component of a cooperation between an individual and his or her unique circumstance.
The main issue which is creating problem to fight against poverty is that people migrating from rural areas to urban areas is making the urban cities quite congested and affecting the lifestyle of the urban people. Findings show that 75 percent of the developing world's poor still live in rural areas it’s a large amount of percentage people living in rural areas because of their agriculture work as it’s a main source of income for the rural areas. It is believed that the main cause of rise in urban poor is the cost of living as the author has stated that overall people living in rural areas have $1cost of living per day but if we compare this with living cost in urban it’s like nothing so this increase poverty in the urban area. The urban poor face the housing problems as governments and local government try to make housing societies for the low income group but it fails to get them a fixed asset as one big problem of corruption arises in the developing countries and that land is basically allotted to landlords or some projects, thus doing hand with the low income groups and make difficulties for the poor ones. With a new rising trend towards less planning for social housing in big cities, administrators and city developers know very well
Inequality still persists in most societies, mostly in the third world countries were both gender inequality and income inequality continue to be socially problematic for most societies. Gender discrimination and the income gap continue to grow. Furthermore, poverty also does continue to be socially problematic. People in many societies, mostly the Southern countries continue to live under appalling conditions, without any of the three necessities, the basic human needs such as shelter, food and water. According to Aristotle, the ultimate goal is to strive for happiness and the difference is found among ends.
• Economic exclusion includes lack of access to labor markets, credit and other forms of ‘capital assets’. • Social exclusion may take form of discrimination along a number of dimensions including gender, ethnicity, age, etc which results in the reduction of opportunity for such groups in order to gain access to social services and limits their participation in the labor market. • Cultural exclusion refers to the extent to which diverse values, norms and ways of living are not accepted and
In rural poverty the poor are discovered staying in disproportionate level in rural areas in which they are predominantly focuses to agriculture and primary activities as their main source of income. The major component of poor people in the world is women. Women are considered poor compared to others because of their lower ability and potential of earning higher incomes compared to men. In addition, women are more likely in getting low-productivity jobs with minimum wages and less social security benefits. As men are given more priority in job prospects, this will definitely leads to income inequality among men and women where the economy growth will be less productive.
According to Sen, social exclusion addresses two central issues- one that of epistemology, that is, how to gain a meaningful understanding of the diverse phenomena of deprivation and poverty and the other being policy implications of that understanding to devise ways and means to improve policy making. Hence, Sen discusses the concept of social exclusion by situating it in the broader context of poverty as capability deprivation. Classically, poverty has been seen in terms of paucity of income that determines the standard of living in significant ways. However for Sen, poverty is not so much the shortage of income as it the exclusion of the poor from participation in and access to opportunities and activities which is a major non tangible facet of poverty that needs to be accounted