“Political Economy of Farm size and Productivity” Introduction: The farm size and productivity in the developing countries are used to analyze the agriculture structure. One critique levelled at literature on the productivity- farm size relationship is that the measure used and land productivity is inappropriate, that is people had a perception that big or large farms size holders had higher production than those who hold smaller farms. This perception started changing when Sen (1962, 1966) observed the inverse relationship between farm size and their output, that large farms are not that productive than the small farms. This relationship explained by the relative advantage of involving the family members as labours in the small farms that
Were required to provide food to the superior classes in the society and hence they engaged themselves majorly in agriculture. Since they did not own the land and hence were required to pay certain taxes in both cash & kind to the people who gave them
Many key factors led to the transition from indentured servants to slavery. Indentured servants became less cost- efficient due to the fact that land owners owned multiple pieces of land or needed more than one indentured servant to work on their land. Even though working conditions were harsh and the servants were limited to what they can and cannot do, they still had rights as humans, which means they were not slaves. But as more jobs were needed on the farm, the more indentured servant demanded in wages. As the needs of indentured servants increased, the owners believed they were not obliged to commit to the request of their servant.
At that time, agriculture production is low because of lack of agricultural knowledge and technological inputs were also low which bind the whole family to work in agriculture fields. After 1750s industrial revolution began and it led to advances in agricultural technology that greatly increased food production, which allow other people to pursue other work. At that time horsepower came into use and machinery like steam engine used in the agricultural process. Tractors were used for ploughing. In 1701 Jethro Tull’s used drill ways of sowing seed in rows, in the place of broadcasting.
Jared Diamond mentions the availability of food surpluses with the introduction of agriculture, which created the needed for the protection of food storages and therefore bureaucrats and specialization (85). Specialization is one of the major effects of agriculture. As less people were required to produce food, specialization came into effect, including the creation of leaders. With the creation of chiefdoms and beaurocrat, inequality also arises among the population. This inequality was one cause of the origins of state, according to Robert L. Carneiro.
Golding through his use of symbolism clearly shows the movement from order to chaos throughout the novel. Unfortunately this idea that life can slip into chaos from order is not only fiction like Golding’s novel but the truth is that it has been a reality in some countries throughout the world. But hopefully in these cases in the future happy ending stories will be true ones rather than fictional ones. Nevertheless it is usually good that conquers evil and that more positives should be taken from stories rather than negatives. Stories should be judged by the level of interest it inspired in the reader and their consideration of its main theme.
Current modern soceity has changed in many ways from the 1940 's when Orwell wrote Animal Farm. The revolution and communist rule of Russia that Orwell crituqed through his allegorical novel has come and gone. Likewise many other things such as modern cultural norms and technology also bare very little resemblence to thier prevelant ancestors of that time. However, in this day power still does often bring currption just as it did in Orwell 's classic work. One certral element of this theme that remains true is that regardless of how upstanding the person or how virtous their goals are, power still can currpt.
The two works what to tell that people return to the wild, gain self-awareness, and enhance their moral strength (Berthoud 289). Although their story plot, characterization, and environment have some similar or different parts, they all study the evil and virtuous human nature is affected by the traditional civilized moral standard. Coppola’s film follows the footsteps of Conrad’s novella. Even Heart of Darkness bases on the colonial period and Apocalypse Now relies on the Vietnam War. There is no doubt that Apocalypse Now is an adaption of Heart of Darkness, bur also is a continual the new exploration of human nature.
All members of the community would have to contribute equally in terms of labor. As well, the leader would operate his power prudently and without abuse or exploitation. In “Animal Farm”, animals are treated with injustice based on their identities, which serves as a typical example of the hierarchy of the human society. On the top of the social hierarchy pyramid is Napoleon, followed by the other pigs, then the dogs, and finally the rest of the animals. This social inequity is established by the educational opportunities that are only provided for pigs and by the amount of labor appointed to the rest of the animals, which is significantly higher than that of the dogs and pigs.
Setting, referring to the external and internal context of a novel renders each work different from the other. The setting differentiates the texts by the way it shapes the characters and the social structure. In fact, one can see that the setting significantly affects the characters, the social structure within the texts. For instance, in The Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass and Animal Farm by G. Orwell, the country and farm setting have a substantial effect on many aspects of the novel such as its characters, the social structure and the mood. This is important because it shows how humans’ behavior is dictated by the environment in which they evolve.