In contrast with Classical Conditioning, Skinner introduced Operant Conditioning to conduct research on shaping one’s own behaviors through two kinds of consequences: reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement is the consequences that increase the chance that the behavior will occur again in the future. Two kinds of reinforcements he identified were positive reinforcement (stimulus that favors the outcome, such as praise) and negative reinforcement (the removal of unpleasant stimulus to increase recurring behavior). Punishment also plays an important role with Operant Conditioning. Punishment is the consequences that decrease the chance that the behavior will occur again. Positive Punishment is presenting an unpleasant stimulus after a response
Paper 1: BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Becky Templin Clovis Community College February 17, 2018 Introduction The theory behind behavior modification ethics has a reputation for its accomplishments and disappointments. In addition to this, there are many dangers in using physical punishment as behavior modification with the two primary modifiers of behavior being Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. The outcome of using negative reinforcement has its share of benefits and downfalls in human behavior whereas; positive reinforcement seems to win over.
1. B.F. Skinner: Behaviour modification Positive and negative reinforcements or rewards and punishments are used to modify or shape learner’s behaviour. B. F. Skinner’s entire system is based on operant conditioning. The organism is in the process of "operating" on the environment, which in ordinary terms means it is bouncing around its world, doing what it does. During this "operating," the organism encounters a special kind of stimulus, called a reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforcer.
(2003) defined self-esteem as how much value people place on themselves and it is the evaluative component of self-knowledge. There are two levels of self-esteem which were high self-esteem and low self-esteem. To be exact, high self-esteem was referred to an accurate, justified, balanced appreciation of one’s worth as a person and one’s successes and competencies. Meanwhile, low self-esteem can be either an accurate, well-founded understanding of one’s shortcomings as a person or a distorted, even pathological sense of insecurity and inferiority (Baumeister et. al, 2003).
Within this theory there are two types of punishments and two types of reinforcements. Positive reinforcement deals with the presentation of positive stimuli after an action. Negative reinforcement is when a negative stimulus is taken away. Positive punishment is when undesired consequences are attached to a certain behavior. Lastly, negative punishment is when desired consequences are removed such as material items.
After the first self-induced meal, the rat repeatedly touched the lever in order to get more food (smart rat!). To the hungry rodent, the sound of the dispenser became a reinforcer when it was first associated with feedings, and continued to be so, until after a while, researchers stopped providing food when the lever was pressed. Soon after that, the rat stopped touching the lever. Positive and Negative Reinforcers These can be both positive and negative, and both can be used to strengthen behaviour. Children and young people respond to verbal operant, taking advice, listening to warnings of others, obeying rules and laws given.
Operant conditioning is a condition in which the desired behavior or increasingly closer to the approximations to it are followed by a rewarding or reinforcing stimulus. “The fundamental principle of operant conditioning is that behavior is determined by its consequences. Behavior does not occur as isolated and unrelated events; the consequences that follow the actions of an animal, be they good, bad, or indifferent, will have an effect on the frequency with which those actions are repeated in the future,” (Laule 2). A reinforcement strengthens a response, reinforcement
Nevertheless, Skinner points out that children learn nothing from the punishment. Instead, they may start to work out how to avoid it (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Another concept is classical conditioning (classical behaviorism) that emphasizes on the relation between stimuli and response. This concept embodies in a famous experiment, in which the food is presented to the dog when the bell rings, and the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus for the dog (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Likewise, if children receive toys in the condition that they behave well, then they will probably repeat this behavior to get the toys.
Link to reality: Both Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning and Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning can be used every day in an ECCE setting. Today many school systems and childhood authorities follow Skinner’s and Pavlov’s theory by using the approach of positive reinforcement. This encourages good behaviour in the child making the behaviour more likely to be repeated again as they are rewarded and praised for their efforts in reading, writing and general learning. It is important that children’s efforts in a learning setting are rewarded as this will encourage the child to perform to the best of their ability.
The Positive and Negative of Operant Conditioning and The Most Effective Method There are many ways we can come about in behavior. An American psychologist, B.F. Skinner, introduced the theory of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is known as associative learning and a learning process. The theory is made up of two factors in which behavior is modified through either reinforcement and or punishment.
In chapter 7, I found the concept of punishment to be most intriguing. Punishment is a part of operant conditioning which was theorized by B.F. Skinner. Punishment is often confused with negative reinforcement. However, the main difference between the two is: while the goal of reinforcement is to increase the likelihood of a behavior, the primary goal of punishment is to reduce the chances of the behavior it follows. In 1938, Skinner concluded that punishment produces only temporary suppression of behavior but later research found that effects may be permanent.
Chapter three deals with procedures based in the principles of “respondent conditioning”, also known as Classical or Pavlovian conditioning. Classical conditioning is different than “operant conditioning”, in which a behavior is modified through its consequences, known as a reinforcer or punisher. These behaviors are called operant behaviors or voluntary. However, this chapter focuses on “respondent behavior”.
Reinforcement in this behavior- related matter is a consequence that strengthens the future of an organism whenever the behavior ensues a particular antecedent. Its strengthening effect can be measured in terms of longer durations, higher behavior frequencies and shorter latency among others. Positive reinforcements are rewarding stimuli associated with an appreciated and appetitive behavior. A positive reinforcement takes place where a desirable stimulus or event is presented as the behaviors consequence resulting to an increase in behavior. For a negative reinforcement however, it occurs when the behaviors rate increases due to the removal of an aversive stimulus or event or the prevention of it from happening.
One of best methods to raise a self-esteem is by learning how to control and how to replace the voice of one’s own inner critic. Everyone has inner critics and someone who has weak inner critic thinks in negative ways. When one’s inner critic say in wrong and harmful way, they have to say “No” or “Stop” themselves to be stronger. At last, replace perfectionism. Some of people who suffer from low self-esteem want to be perfect in every part of their life.
Reinforcement and punishment are methods used in operant conditioning and both can be positive and negative but work in a unique way. Positive means you are adding something so you increase a behaviour and negative means you are taking something away so you decrease a particular behaviour. Reinforcement Reinforcement is used to help increase a specific behaviour in the future and if done correctly this behaviour will increase, occurring more frequently as the child develops.