Cornell (2004) pointed out that autonomy and self –determination is the frequent goal of ethnic mobilizations (p. 245). In a cultural perspective, Guibernau (2006) argues that ethnic group demand self-rule in order to ‘to foster its distinct identity’ (p. 72-73). It may seem that such conflicts are common in multiethnic society where the existence of cleavages makes the formation of homogenous society very difficult. Furthermore, the establishment of a ‘national identity’ inevitably favor a certain faction of society that might cause uproar from other minority groups. We can therefore argue that “what matters is whether there is the perception of discrimination” (Cornell, 2004, p.
According to Michael Freeden, the core structure of nationalism is the prioritisation and positive valorisation of a particular group (the nation), a sense of belonging in which emotion plays an important role, and the desire to give politico-institutional expression to it (Saward, 2005, pp. 50-51). Nationalism is thus clearly a political ideology, aiming to generate popular appeal through a mythicized idea of the homeland – but it is also quite different from classical left-right ideologies (as socialism, liberalism or conservatism), as it is concerned with creating or maintaining the very political unit that the left-right ideologies need to play their trade (Saward, 2005, p. 50). It is
As the economic and regional power of these groups expands, their sociopolitical interests will further separate them from the culturally assimilative efforts of the West. According to Samuel P. Huntington’s hypothesis, the conflicts yet to come will be incited by differing cultural identities, for example: religion, race or the “highest cultural grouping of people”, civilizations (Levy 2010: 127). The Clash of Civilizations’ explanation is in direct opposition to modern theories such as Francis Fukuyama’s The End of History and the Last Man, which takes a more assimilationist view to America’s Cold War triumph. While I cannot critique all aspects of Huntington’s postulate, I will be focusing on the validity of some of his arguments, and the quantitative and qualitative deficiencies of
The postcolonial devotion to identity and culture is the idea that they have their own vital features which are resistant to those of others. Contrarily proclaim ‘fixity’ for identity and ‘authenticity’ for culture postcolonialism takes their historical depictions for their legitimate uses in more fluid postcolonial contexts. Postcolonialism admits the potentials that are dangers and chances contained in these rapid transformations in identity and culture particularly with respect to historical western views of natives as the modern barbarians. To clarify these points let’s see Orientalism. According to Said, Orientalism is a technique of power centered in languages and method of translation of the identities, cultures, and religion of the Middle East.
A multiculturalist perspective should be attained by a nation in order to deal with cultural and ethnic diversity. In this essay, I will be focusing on how the governance and decisions made by a nation state affects its citizens. Policies that do not uphold equity and pluralism will result in tensions between two groups, leading to conflict. As long as there is diversity in a nation-state, conflict cannot be prevented. This is true when there is a lack of equal and fair treatment to all races in a nation.
4.3.2 Nationalism and Multilateralism Nationalism is known as an ideology that individual 's loyalty to the nation, surpassing other individual or group interest. This action could be achieved either through economic, social, or political action. The sense of nationalism generally was aimed to maintained national self-determination and to maintain a nation need to have national identity, something that distinguish them from other nation. That is why national flags, anthem, symbol, language, and myth are very important for nationalism. Nationalism itself is a modern movement, in which only when the end of the 18th century come that the sentiment of people toward their nation was recognized.
While analysing the causes of WW1 (also known as the Great War) and WW2 (known as the Second World War). Three causes did stand out, those three causes were applicable to WW1 and WW2, they differed in certain ways but were all really important and maybe the most important ones. The first one would be Nationalism. Nationalism would be define as the feeling of sharing the same cultural heritage , the same language, sometimes the same religion and the same historical past, resulting in a great pride. Extreme nationalism can push people to believe they are the only ones with the right to live in a certain territory.
Sen argues that excessive emphasis on liberty is problematic sometime. In a political context, the prioritizing of identity over reason has the effect of rejecting ideas of cross-cultural dialogue. Professor Sen discussed the `tendency to split the world up into little islands' rather than see it in terms of moral norms. This book believes that Communitarian theories tried to rival liberal justice by suggesting that we are recognized by our cultural identities. These identities can threaten our rational moral understanding of problems.
Additionally, these objects of comparison are consequential to both groups’ self-conceptions, which suggests that our anger awakened when our cherish parts was injured. For Pakistan, the two nation theory as its self-conception as an “Islam” state contrast with “Hindu” India, who involved secularism and Hindu nationalism in its self-image as a modern country. The Kashmir issue highlights this process that states seek for recognition of ideology to reinforce their own identities. For India, Kashmir is a part crucial to the legitimacy and integrity of its secularism identity. For Pakistan, incorporation with Kashmir would complete the self-conception of two nation theory.