He used the concept of civil society to explain a sphere that is distinct from the state. He attempted to resolve the private vs. public dichotomy in his own way by incorporating the civil society in the state structure. Nonetheless, Hegel could not come up with a systematic theory of civil society. Karl Marx (1818-1882) was critical of the bourgeois theories
The existence of the others is crucial in defining what is “normal” and in locating one’s own place in the world. The other is perceived as lacking the essential characteristics possessed by a group and hence is considered to be a lesser or inferior being and therefore is treated accordingly. This novel revolves around ideas on colonialism, issues of identity and torture. The given passage for this assignment serves as a representation of one of the key concepts in the novel – that of the portrayal of power play. The happenings before and after the scene in the extract that was given confirm the importance of power that is used as a weapon to humiliate and transform the ‘powerful’ into the
It differs from these approaches for the rejection of exogenous conception of national interests. The constructivist theory advocates that states do not have pre-formed identities and interests. They are formed in the process of interaction and are transformed under anarchy in three ways: 1) by the institution of sovereignty; 2) by an evolution of cooperation; 3) by intentional efforts to transform egoistic identities into collective identities. In other words, “identities and interests are constituted by collective meanings that are always in process” (Wendt,
It calls for justice and raises awareness of an issue, its aim is not sympathy or pity. Furthermore, it helps in forming identity. It can be expressed through literature, arts, theatre, posters, puppet shows and paintings that criticize the government. Resistance literature is a kind of cultural resistance in which the oppressed people try to combat the tyranny in their writings such as poems, novels and plays. It is also considered as a challenge to the imposed culture by the colonized.
“The impulse oppose cultural norms appears as inarticulate revolt, as social criticism, as vision, as ideology, as completed revolution; It may spring from logic, disillusionment, or the experience of oppression. In short, it is part of the continuing dialectic of history, as much our cultural heritage as what it opposes. What I mean, then, by 'counter-tradition' is not 'that which opposes the tradition', 'the tradition which opposes'” 1.12.1. MAHATMA JOTIBHA PHULE AND THE VERY BEGINNING OF THE DALIT MOVEMENT: Among the many issues that are dominating the contemporary social and political discourse the most significant is the emergence of the Dalit identity. Constituting one fifth of the country’s population they occupy an important
In the contemporary time period needs to understand the politics of resistance by the idea that agents stand ‘counter to’ relations of power. In the polanyian tradition, for example, the ‘counter to’ relates with necessary uprising changes against the self- regulating markets. As I have argued elsewhere, these traditions significantly underplay the ambiguities and contradictions of subject positions within the interplay of power and resistance (Amoore and Langley 2004; Amoore 2005). The tendency to oppose power/ resistance leads to drive to seek to resolve such contradictions and concealment of difficulties at the heart of political life. The cultural resistance that is commonly relates with cultural creativity and cultural occupations, and both are the field of culture that exists in a
The Victorian Era, in which Austen and Dickens’s novels were written, saw a significant shift in the form of the novel. The form began in the Romantic Period, with novels feeling under the category of “pop” literature (Greenblatt, 2012a). However, under the structure of the Victorian Era, novels not only gained popularity, but began to be viewed as much more reputable in literary circles (Greenblatt, 2012b). In addition, the subject matter of literature changed during this time. According to the Glossary of Literary Terms, “much of the writing of the period, whether imaginative or didactic, in verse or in prose, dealt with or reflected the pressing social, economic, religious, and intellectual issues and problems of that era” (Abrams & Harpham, 2012).
"Dystopian literature is specifically that literature which situates itself in direct opposition to utopian thought, warning against the potential negative consequences of arrant utopianism. At the same time, either through the critical examination of the utopian premises upon which those conditions and systems are based or through the imaginative extension of those conditions and systems into different contexts that more clearly reveal their flaws and contradictions". By this definition, dystopian literature is not so much a specific genre as a particular kind of oppositional and critical energy or spirit. (Booker 3). In a dystopian story, society itself is typically the antagonist; it is a society that is actively working against
Although, as has already been mentioned, the Romantic period is best known for the work of major Romantic poets, the period also saw the rapid growth of the novel. In a period of rapid social and political change the novel became more important as a detailed record and exploration of change. Moreover, the growth of the novel in this period prepared the way for the even
Identity entails qualities of repeatability, sameness and continuity; in addition to that it suggests otherness and difference. Therefore identity must be understood as the ‘product of discourse and history rather than something ahistorical and essential’ (van Wyk, 89). This chapter will delve