It helps to explain one’s behaviour. It is defined as a tendency which characterizes an individual’s perspective about his self-independence and control by others (Corsini, 1999). It refers to the individuals’ perception regarding the underlying causes of different events that take place in their lives and also the ability to control over what happens to them. It is defined as a personality trait. Locus of Control is a personality dimension which helps to explain an individual’s trait and behaviours and refers to his/her very general, cross-situational belief about what determines the reinforcement in life (Haggbloom, Warnick, and Warnick,
The conceptualization of stress is important to understand how people learn to cope with stress. How an individual conceptualizes stress will determines his or her adaption, response, or the way managing strategies. There are three main models of stress, which are stimulus based stress models, response based models, and transactional based models. The stimulus based stress models viewed stress as significance life event or change that demands response, adaptation, or adjustment. This refers to the identification of potential sources of stress.
Although many principles are related to changing behavior, there are two basic premises for a reinforcement to be effective. Those premises are either positive (being rewarded) or negative (being punished) consequences. If the result is a good consequence such as being rewarded, people are most likely to repeat the behavior. Whereas, on a negative consequence, such as being punished, the behavior will tend to avoid it. Three directions of reinforcement can be seen here.
CARL ROGERS Carl Rogers is a humanistic approaches who agreed with the humanistic approach that Maslow came up, but added the personal growth and they need an environment that provides genuine, accepting and empathy. Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took place. This was one of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology, and for a person to reach their potential a number of factors must be satisfied. Self Actualization, Rogers believe that we behave the way we do because of the way that we perceive our situations.
Proactive is roles and relationships in life. To have a can do attitude. The ability to subordinate an impulse to a value is the essence of the proactive person. Reactive people are driven by feelings, by circumstances, by conditions, by their environment. But proactive people are driven by values "carefully thought about, selected and internalized values".
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom 's expectancy theory separates effort (which arises from motivation), performance, and outcomes. Vroom 's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee 's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person 's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this.
The general attributional approach recognizes that humans try to make sense of their surroundings and themselves and that this sense-making activity is an important part of the social phenomena under asking questions and trying to find the truth. Attribution theories, very differently, are theories of more clearly stated or related. Even though explanations and feature guesses (trait) based on what you 've been told are occasionally related, they are clear/separate in many ways. Most theorist sort out explanations of success or failure using polarities of three characteristics that can help define personality: locus of control, stability and Controllability
While extrinsic motivation encourages a learner to achieve something because of a separable outcome. I believe that intrinsic motivation is always intrinsically better compared to extrinsic motivation. Berry Schwartz, a behaviorist philosopher notes that learners tend to be responsive when the environment tempts them; for rewards or to avoid punishment. This suggest that extrinsically motivated learners are passive compared to intrinsically motivated learners, whom need not to be moved to perform a task. If the use of rewards and punishments is no longer encouraged, learners whom are extrinsically motivated may feel that learning
For him, people are motivated more by future expectations than past experiences and individuals behave as if motivated by goals and are guided in their behavior by these expectations (Adler, 2002 p.55). Adler explains that the real or fictional goals towards which an individual strives explain his/her behavior even though the individual may be largely unaware of them. Of particular importance as a fictive goal is the individual’s guiding self-ideal. This forms the individual’s unifying principles that safeguard self-esteem. The self ideal leads to the individual’s characteristic style of life which is the way that a person’s individuality is expressed in its own environment, in its own unique way.
Three core conditions that will aid the therapist in doing so is being congruent, having unconditional positive regard and being emphatic. This paper explores the effectiveness of person-centered therapy in creating therapeutic alliance. It also explores the necessary conditions for constructive personality change to occur, exist and continue over a period of time as well as the personal characteristics that are most important for a person-centered therapist to be genuine and lastly the personal characteristics of the writer, which might assist or hinder ability to work with clients effectively. INTRODUCTION A Discussion of Person-Centered Therapy Person-centered therapy according to (Mearns & Thorne, 1999, p. 5) is the aim of helping a client to undo the ‘personal theory’, which he had formed through his