Observing the successes of others similar to oneself provides positively to self-efficacy while the exact opposite is also true – observing the failures of others similar to oneself may lessen self-efficacy. Another source of self-efficacy is social or verbal persuasion. Social persuasion is the words of encouragement or moral support from others regarding one’s performance that may transform one’s perceptions of efficacy. Self-efficacy can be persuaded if told by others that they have what it takes to succeed. Self-efficacy can also be weakened if told by others they do not acquire the proficiencies for success.
The employees viewed such influence as reasonable and justified. Lastly, the influence is directed towards achieving organizational goals such as a desired level of employee performance as well as organization performance. Thus, the leader is considered an effective leader if they are able to improve employee as well as organizational effectiveness. Moreover, leader behavior would produce satisfaction and influence the employees’ performance (Howell and Costley, 2006). However, according to Howell and Costley (2006), an effective leader behavior depends on situational and employee characteristic and also able to be implemented in different situational.
If the benefit is not positively valued by the employee, it falls within the employee’s “zone of indifference” and the presence or absence of such benefit in the workplace have little effect to that employees (Kroeger, 1995). A benefit will be valued more highly if employees have accurate knowledge of the benefits offered to them (Tremblay, Sire, & Pelchat, 1998). Employees who have accurate view of their benefit coverage seem to have higher valuation of the benefits they receive and are satisfied with their benefit packages than employees who are less informed of their benefits (Dreher et al., 1988). Employee’s attitude towards various benefits offered differs from employee to employee. For example; younger employees prefer health and life insurance while older employees prefer pension plans and provident fund and women employees prefer benefits like maternity leave than the other benefits offered.
The conclusion here is that confidence may relate to success, but it is hard to determine if this is innate or not. It is possible that confidence is learned from nurture rather than in nature. In other words, it is possible that self-confidence is something that humans have created and is something learned from experiences rather than inborn habits. It is logical to assume that self-confidence is a by-product of human judgments and is used as a tool of survival in an encourage-limited situation. Although the research at this point in time may be inconclusive, it is safe to assume that the relationship between self-confidence and athletic
Thomas and Velthouse (1990) view intrinsic motivation as essentially concerned with positively valued experiences derived directly from a given task. Intrinsic motivational factors include curiosity, challenge, and social interaction. On the other hand, Extrinsic motivational factors include recognition, competition, and work avoidance. Individuals who have Intrinsic motivation tend to perform better without external rewards and recognition and vice versa with extrinsic motivation. Both do affect the Self-Empowerment level of an individual.
Implementation Training has a close relationship and the same direction, namely improving skills, knowledge, and attitude of employees. Because the factors that affect the achievement of work is a factor of ability (ability) and motivation factor (motivation). Motivational factors have relationship with the performance of individual employees. While individual ability factor and work environment have the indirect relationship with performance. Both of these factors will influence the employee 's motivation.
It was also in favor of the prospect theory. The positive framing effect prompt promises a gain instead of a lost. Society tends to go with the positive framing effect which is known as the risk averse. In the results, it was shown that there were no significant difference and that people weren’t risk averse, but more risk seeking. The risk averse is described as a gain rather than risking it all for a chance of gaining something.
Attitude is responding positive or negative towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences one’s self-esteem, feeling of satisfaction that someone has in themselves with his or her own abilities. If one has low self-esteem it can lead to lack of confidence, one who has high self- esteem leads to improved relationships and successful outcomes. Attitude and self-esteem play a huge role in one’s career but also in life. When it comes to work it is important to have a good attitude, it reflects on who one is as a person and how to manage oneself at work.
RESULTS/FINDINGS Competitive advantage arises when a firm creates value for its customers by emphasizing the importance of differentiation, which consists of offering a product considered as being unique, seeing a particular product market as more effective or efficient than its competitions, and cost leadership. By utilizing these generic strategies against industry’s external environmental determinants, management can affect a firm’s performance. On the contrary, a resource-based view suggests that a firm can sustain its competitive advantage through the alignment of internally consistent bundles of HRM strategies/implementation to its overall business strategy and desired performance, to develop critical resources or competencies. This