TASK 1 What are the social determinants of health and how these determinants are linked to Inequality in health outcomes between different social groups? The social determinants of health ranges from factors such as the wider socio-economic context as seen in fig 1, inequality; poverty; social exclusion; socio-economic position; income; public policies; health services; employment; education; housing; transport; the built environment; health behaviours or lifestyles; social and community support networks and stress. The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people live and work and these circumstances are shaped by economics, policies and politics. It is the duty of the government tackle this social determinant of health
The population health determinant is an ongoing discussion with the United States health care system. According to Knickman & Kovner (2015) social determinant of health (SDOH) are the “circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work and age, and the system in place to deal with illness” (Knickman & Kovner, 2015, p. 80). The peer-reviewed article I chose is a social determinant of health related to obesity. The ability to understand the realm of population health depends on understanding the environmental connections related to biological, behavioral, physical, access, and social determinant (Knickman & Kovner, 2015).
Social Determinants of Health Health (HLTH) 300: Determinants of Health and Population Health Promotion presented numerous interconnected factors that can affect an individual’s health and well-being; these are referred to as the social determinants of health (SDH). The SDH include: gender; early life; income; education; race; social exclusion; coping skills; social support networks; and culture among other factors (Mikkonen & Raphael, 2010; Public Health Agency of Canada [PHAC], 2008a). Numerous underlying determinants of health can impact a youth’s personal behaviours (The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada [AFMC], n.d.), therefore, before planning activities, I reflected on and recognized SDH that can potentially pose challenges
Introduction Primary care is said to be the “first point of contact” for people when accessing the health care system in Ireland (Department of health and children 2001). The World health organisation(1978) outline that one of the main roles of primary health care is to provide access to care for the most vulnerable but also to identify and rectify the factors which lead to their early mortality. The Alma Ata declaration (1978) was a huge milestone in the development of primary care and they explain how essential it is for all populations’ health. Unfortunately the vulnerable populations in Ireland suffer the effects of the social determinates and also the health inequalities and die younger because they put up with a healthcare system which “places lesser value on the lives of those with lesser means” (Wren 2002).
It’s shown that rates of food insecurity among rural households are generally higher than urban households. The irony is that many of these food-insecure households are in the very rural and farm communities whose productivity feeds the world and provides low-cost wholesome food for American consumers (Feeding America.com). The US Department of Agriculture states that 17% of rural households are food insecure, or an estimated 3.3 million households, and in the 17% of rural house holds are below the federal poverty line. Next I’ll be showing how food insecurity can have two aspects to it, it can either cause obesity, or starvation.
Social determinants of health depend on social, environmental and economic conditions in societies (EuroHealthNet, n.d.). These factors and conditions, together with the age, sex and hereditary factors of a person, are interlinked and influence the health status of the individual, because a person is born, grows, lives, works and ages in these conditions (Equity Action, 2010). The living and working conditions include agriculture and food production, education, work and environment, unemployment, water and sanitation, health care services and housing (Marmot, Health inequalities in the EU, 2013, p. 40). In addition, it is clear that equal access to good health is hard to achieve, and it can be done so, if disadvantages are assessed, and that necessary measures should be taken (Stegeman, Costongs, & Needle,
Before we look at the different Social/Psychological Determinants of Health it is important firstly to define what a social determinant of health is. According to the World Health Organization (2017) “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age.” These conditions are as a result of a wide range of factors that are ultimately governed by the way in which money, power and specific resources are shared at different levels including those at global, national and local levels. We have all been a part of and will experience different social determinants of health throughout our lives but it is the standard at which we experience these determinants that will ultimately lead onto them affecting our health or ultimately leaving us unaffected. The Social Determinants of Health which I am going to examine include • Education • Unemployment • Stress • Living Conditions • Cultural Norms.
Adewale Troutman stated that he advocates “individual responsibility, but always within the context of social determinants” linking the two thoughts together. Fundamentally, he is saying that it is up to one to make their health within the means they have. There are aspects of life that people have no control over or don’t have the resources to fix, but there are still ways they can improve their health. Social determinants are conditions that people grow, work, live, age and the factors that shape their daily lives.
Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Healthy People (2015), these factors underlie preventable disparities in health status and disease outcomes. Poor health outcomes are often the result of the interaction between individuals and their social and physical environment. Policies that result in changes to the social and physical environment can affect entire populations over extended periods of time, while simultaneously helping people to change individual-level behavior. Improving the conditions in which people are born, live, work, and age will ensure a healthier population, thereby improving national productivity, security, and prosperity through a healthier nation. The importance of social determinants of health is growing initiatives to address these determinants of health.
INTRODUCTION Health is the foremost need of every human being and there are various factors influencing it. Social determinants of health are the emerging topic in present scenario where they have to be considered to ensure good health to everyone. This essay shall focus on this aspect with a detailed description of SDOH in the first section followed by the reasons that exist behind considering income, housing and environment as the major factors. The last section shall deal with real time examples on such factors and their impacts on health conditions. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH (SDOH)
Health inequalities are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged. Health inequalities are not only apparent between people of different socio-economic groups – they exist between different genders and different ethnic groups (“Health inequalities,” n.d.). The situation in which people are born, grow, develop, work and age are affected by social, economic, environmental and most importantly political factors.
The Health Field Model The Health Field Model (HFM) is the conceptual framework that is used by different health care organizations or in individual research projects to evaluate the prevalence, awareness and management of diseases in the community (Pittman, 2010). The HFM, a determinant health model is developed by Bob Evans and Greg Stoddart in 1990. The HFM provides a broad spectrum for understanding health, and the factors that interfere with, and influence the health of individuals in the community. There are features to put into consideration for, in determining the factors that affect many diseases; hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease, or influence of health on a community (Kindig & McGinnis, 2007).
Introduction Health is an important element throughout our life. A person’s health can be affected by many social factors such as gender roles and economic positions. As there are differences in health status between different populations groups, health inequality is then formed, for example, differences in morbidity and mortality rates between people from different social classes. In my essay, I will first define the meaning of ‘health’ from different perspectives. Then, I will talk about how social factors such as gender roles and economic positions determine a person’s health.
Social causation of disease is described as the origin of illness that results from social environment, social interactions, or social factors. On the other hand, biological factors are not the only cause of disease as social causation and presume that social factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), religion, and social networks have an effect on the severity of illness and mortality. The idea that social interaction and culture play a major role in the causation of disease has been present in social thought since the discussion of the interaction between politics and mortality. Social causes of disease can be divided into fundamental causes and proximate lifestyle causes ( Link & Phelan, 1995). Nevertheless, causes of illness can directly
Although food is available in the local markets persons especially the vulnerable are unable to purchase the basic food item. Due to the current economic crisis Jamaicans are experiencing some form of loss of income or income generation opportunities or employment are therefore lack the purchasing power needed to access healthy affordable food This lack of access to food can result in hunger (food deprivation), malnutrition (deficiencies, imbalances, or excesses of nutrients), and famine. Hunger has a negative impact on a person’s wellbeing as it reduces natural defences against diseases, which is the main risk factor for illness worldwide. In addition high food price is of utmost concern to