Social Determinants of Health Shelly Clavis Rutgers University School of Nursing Social Determinants of Health Defined Health concerns is an issue that most organizations have formed a pact to safely deal with the challenge. The main agenda focuses on the eradication of health inequalities that may exist in most countries. It is best suited that social determinants are accorded the much-needed attention since they affect a number of people. In assessing the factors that affect one’s health, genetic disposition, personal behaviors, ability to obtain healthcare and the overall environment in which an individual resides are to be considered. Social determinants of Health are issues that deals with the conditions that people have found constructed in a society and acts as a parcel in their lives, such as; growth, age and some of the more complex systems that construct a society which include economic policies and their systems that include social norms, development goals and the basic political system that they are indulged under (World Health Organization, 2008). There has been a new wave of research into exactly what are "social …show more content…
For example, food insecurity is considered a major social determinant of health. Food Insecurity occurs when people do not have access to adequate and nutritional foods necessary to maintain a healthy lifestyle (Lombe et al, 2016). There is a direct relationship between one’s social economic status and the type of food they can afford. Households living below the poverty line lack the resources financially to afford healthier or organic food alternatives. What is more, they may not have the means of transportation to get to those supermarkets where healthier foods are sold. Households below the poverty line was 6.7 % more likely to suffer from food insecurity as compared to those whose income is above the poverty line (Lombe et al,
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The term social determinants of health, can be defined as a ‘set of conditions in which people are born, grow up, live and work.’ These conditions include housing, education, financial security and the environment along with the healthcare service. (http://www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/438838/01.12_Health_inequalities_and_the_social_determinants_of_health.pdf) These factors are affected by the amount of money, power and resources that are available at a global, national and local level. Social determinants of health are linked to health inequalities according to the World Health Organisation, health inequalities are ‘the unfair and avoidable differences in health status seen within and between countries.’
The social factor that I have chosen to explain in the argumentative essay is food insecurity and housing instability which can lead to health problems. Food insecurity and housing instability is portrayed throughout the novel Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich revealing the life of a low wage worker. Once Barbara takes the challenge to live as a low wage worker she explains that minimum wage is too low to provide a good shelter and food on the table. Workers who are not paid enough have to make a decision about whether they can pay the rent with the money that the got or get food to eat. Many end up eliminating food because for them having a roof on their head is the most important so they have a place to go after long hours at work.
The lecture, led by Dr. Christian Dimaano, discussed a variety of health disparities and then went into an in depth look at Henrietta Lacks, and the use of her cells in scientific research. He described health disparities as the differences of health problems between races, lifestyles, and mental processes. This was a very interesting topic for me, as a nursing major, I hadn’t really thought about health disparities before, so it was interesting to think about all of the potentially higher health risks that can occur simply because a patients race, or mental state. He also discussed the social determinants of heath and how things like your physical environment, economic stability, social community, and education can all influence your health. Dr. Dimaano also talked about how social determinants of health are health problems that you had no choice in, they are developed by factors such as sex, age, genes, medical care, and individual behaviors such as work and home life.
These elements include social support structures, educational attainment, employment status, poverty, and income. Health outcomes, health behaviors, and access to healthcare services are all significantly influenced by socioeconomic level (WHO, 2003). Similarly, a healthy neighborhood and lifestyle determine health. Health within the Social Insurance Model is influenced by a variety of elements, such as housing quality, transportation, access to healthy food, water quality, usage of tobacco and alcohol, amount of physical activity, dietary practices, and adherence to advised screenings or
Adewale Troutman stated that he advocates “individual responsibility, but always within the context of social determinants” linking the two thoughts together. Fundamentally, he is saying that it is up to one to make their health within the means they have. There are aspects of life that people have no control over or don’t have the resources to fix, but there are still ways they can improve their health. Social determinants are conditions that people grow, work, live, age and the factors that shape their daily lives.
Heath and Low Socioeconomic Status Class When examining the health status of Canadians, one may not recognize the flaws of inequality. When looked into further is it evident that not all Canadians are on equal playing fields when it comes to access of health. The concept of social determinant of health, taps into the idea that there are social barriers and obstacle in our society that present challenges for certain social groups and their access to health care. One group of Canadians who experience the effects of inequality in our health care system, are those individuals living in lower socioeconomic status.
Before we look at the different Social/Psychological Determinants of Health it is important firstly to define what a social determinant of health is. According to the World Health Organization (2017) “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age.” These conditions are as a result of a wide range of factors that are ultimately governed by the way in which money, power and specific resources are shared at different levels including those at global, national and local levels. We have all been a part of and will experience different social determinants of health throughout our lives but it is the standard at which we experience these determinants that will ultimately lead onto them affecting our health or ultimately leaving us unaffected. The Social Determinants of Health which I am going to examine include • Education • Unemployment • Stress • Living Conditions • Cultural Norms.
Annotated Bibliography Marmot, M. (2005). Social determinants of health inequalities. The Lancet, 365, 1099 1104. This journal article illustrates that many countries have enormous disparities in health.
INTRODUCTION Health is the foremost need of every human being and there are various factors influencing it. Social determinants of health are the emerging topic in present scenario where they have to be considered to ensure good health to everyone. This essay shall focus on this aspect with a detailed description of SDOH in the first section followed by the reasons that exist behind considering income, housing and environment as the major factors. The last section shall deal with real time examples on such factors and their impacts on health conditions. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH (SDOH)
Health inequalities are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged. Health inequalities are not only apparent between people of different socio-economic groups – they exist between different genders and different ethnic groups (“Health inequalities,” n.d.). The situation in which people are born, grow, develop, work and age are affected by social, economic, environmental and most importantly political factors.
Socioeconomic status is a measurement of a person’s occupation, income and education levels. In most cases, socioeconomic status is perceived as social standing or financial class of an individual. Additionally, it is mostly based on power, influence and control that an individual has over others. Socioeconomic status is a fundamental variable utilized in discerning inequalities particularly in accessing and distributing public resources. Social standing is applicable in a wide range of realms such as behavioral factors as well as social sciences.
Social causation of disease is described as the origin of illness that results from social environment, social interactions, or social factors. On the other hand, biological factors are not the only cause of disease as social causation and presume that social factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), religion, and social networks have an effect on the severity of illness and mortality. The idea that social interaction and culture play a major role in the causation of disease has been present in social thought since the discussion of the interaction between politics and mortality. Social causes of disease can be divided into fundamental causes and proximate lifestyle causes ( Link & Phelan, 1995). Nevertheless, causes of illness can directly
Although food is available in the local markets persons especially the vulnerable are unable to purchase the basic food item. Due to the current economic crisis Jamaicans are experiencing some form of loss of income or income generation opportunities or employment are therefore lack the purchasing power needed to access healthy affordable food This lack of access to food can result in hunger (food deprivation), malnutrition (deficiencies, imbalances, or excesses of nutrients), and famine. Hunger has a negative impact on a person’s wellbeing as it reduces natural defences against diseases, which is the main risk factor for illness worldwide. In addition high food price is of utmost concern to
These factors are known as the Social Determinants of health. “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, including the health system” (WHO). Dalgren & Whitehead (1991) image of the social determinants of health aims to show the relationship between the person, their environment and their health. The modifiable factors, people’s age, gender and race lie in the centre surrounded by non modifiable factors like profession, housing, education and public policy. There is a direct relationship between people’s environment and their health, e.g. people who live in damp housing have a higher incidence of respiratory health problems (Farell et al.