Stigma surrounding the patients using mental health servicesurrounding the patients using ===mental services Panova G, Zisovska E, Joveva E, Serafimov A, Karakolevska Ilova M FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF GOCE DELCHEV, SHTIP, MACEDONIA Stigma is used as a synonym for designation of individuals or group with some characteristic differ from other population. This means that any disease by itself can carry stigma. But the greatest stigmatization is still associated with mental illness. Stigmatization means rewriting the negative characteristics of individual or group and creation of social distance and neglect. These can include multiple groups of people: - people with mental retardation and mental illness - people with deformities of any kind
Scambler’s perspective Scambler and Hopkins (1986), are the medical sociologists that have further developed the Goffman’s ideas of information management in their research of people with epilepsy (Cooke and Philipin, 2008). Based on Goffman’s (1968), stigma was known to signify an “ontological deficit” which was violating against the social norms of identity or being (Scambler, 2009). Scambler proposed stigma can be clearly understood by distinguished them into ‘felt’ and ‘enacted’ stigma (Scambler, 2009). Enacted stigma occurred when there was obvious discrimination against people in view of their socially unacceptability (Scambler, 2009). As for, felt stigma was the developed of feeling being shame which was associated with the
Stigmatization of mental illness existed well before psychiatry became a formal discipline, but was not formally labeled and defined as a societal problem until the publication of Goffman’s book (1963). Mental illnesses are among the most stigmatizing conditions, regardless of the specific psychiatric diagnosis. Unlike other illnesses, mental illness is still considered by some to be a sign of weakness, as well as a source of shame and disgrace. Many psychiatric patients are concerned about how people will view them if knowledge of their condition becomes public Mental health stigma can be divided into two distinct types: • social stigma is characterized by prejudicial attitudes and discriminating behavior directed towards individuals with mental health problems as a result of the psychiatric label they have been given and has those types stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination Stereotypes are based on knowledge available to members of a group and provide a way to categorize information about other groups in society Prejudiced persons agree with these negative stereotypes, and these attitudes lead to discrimination through negative behaviors toward mentally ill individuals those negative perceptions create fear of and social distance from mentally ill persons. • perceived stigma or
Stigma refers to a negative or unfavourable perception that embodies the individual or community’s attitude or beliefs; or public policies towards self or a group of people with certain characteristics that fall short of society’s expectations. It is a reflection of fear and the unknown, driven by ignorance and helplessness. As a consequence of stigma or when stigma is acted upon, discrimination is said to occur, which is an unfair act or unjust treatment towards an individual or group based on identified characteristics  . Stigma and discrimination is of public health concern as it can negatively or adversely affect the physical health, mental health and overall wellbeing of the individual and community as a whole . HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatizing disease and people living with HIV/AIDS are very vulnerable to stigmatization and discrimination due to the persisting myths, misinformation and false beliefs that always associate HIV/AIDS with death .
Mental Illness: Mental illness is a state which is not developmentally or socially normative in nature. It is a significantly deviant thoughts, emotions, cognitions and behaviors which interfere significantly with an individual’s functioning in personal, cognitive, emotional, family, social and vocational area. Abbreviations: Introduction: Mental illness is the major contributor to the global burden of the diseases worldwide. Although mental health is an integral component of total health but still it is largely neglected field. The aim is to know the existing explanations about mental illness among general public.
One of the main stressors for immigrants is discrimination. Such experience influences the sense of belonging and psycho-social integration, which leads to frustration, resentment, and loss of sleep. People who are discriminated or exposed to some sort of unfair treatment show more psychological stress, depression and lower levels of life satisfaction and happiness ( Williams, Spencer, Jackson, 1999). They may begin to avoid or to lose confidence in the members of the dominant social groups. Discrimination is defined as a behavioral manifestation of negative attitude, judgment or unfair treatment towards members of one group ( Williams, Spencer, Jackson, 1999).
However depression has explicit and clinical symptoms. It is also the predominant mental health problem worldwide, and should not be compared with any psychiatric disorder but it occurs with some difficult life events. Yet depression is the most democratic of all illness, which does not respect age, gender, culture, ethnic origin or social status (H.Crisp 2004). According to World Health Organisation (2005) depression are a common mental disorder manifested, among others, in low moods, loss of interest in all kinds of activities, decreased energy, guilt feeling or poor self-esteem, disorders sleep or appetite and awareness problems (Marcus et al, 2012). Adverse conditions such as abuse, violence, stigma, isolation, poverty and lack of access to education and meaningful activities have a significant impact in Depression.
Self stigma is when the societal stigma is so deeply ingrained in the ill individual that they begin to internalize. The “continued impact of societal/public stigma can influence an individual to Geel Quilty and inadequate about his or her condition.” (Ahmedani, B. K. (2011)) Essentially, the knowledge that the stigma exists can impact and individual, even if they haven’t been directly stigmatized and this can lead to behavioral issues. Self stigma can become especially debilitating to those with mental illness because they become disillusioned into believing they have some control over their illness or that it is some how their fault and they are undeserving or will be punished for seeking
As is known to all, spinocerebellar ataxia is hard to cure and patients who suffer from this kind of disease will go through enormous pressure. In other words, this disease will affect the patients’ mental and physical health deadly. However the existing medical technology does not work on it well. Therefore, in other words, if nobody really cares about them, this disease will make patients suffer forever, which does not only result in a heavy burden of family but also a burden of society and medical organization. Is it really able to be cured completely?
Journal Article Review Mental illness stigmatization has a crucial impact on the wellbeing of individual with mental illness by creating self stigma, preventing them from reaching their goal and inhibiting use of available services due to fear of labels. Due to these associated obstacles, stigma requires attention and reframing. This brings up the question as to if mental illness stigmatization is a problem based in public health policies or a social injustice. Corrigan, Watson, Byrne, and Davis (2005) argue that viewing mental illness from a public health perspective alone, while may provide some benefits, also produces negative byproducts, and a social justice perspective may be more apt as changing stigma. The National Alliance on Mental