Søren Kierkegaard is considered the father of existentialism (“Christian and Theological Existentialism”). Kierkegaard wrote a book about the paradox surrounding Abraham sacrificing Isaac. The narrator questions whether “Abraham’s faith in God can justify killing his son” (Søren Kierkegaard: A Master of Refraction 78). Another existentialist, Karl Jaspers, argues that, “free will makes all faith essentially existential. Jaspers also argues that, since life is absurd, it is less absurd to believe in a God which promises eternal life than to believe in nothing at all (“Christian and Theological Existentialism”).
Both men based their accounts of New England off of their religious views. Thomas Morton’s account New England was different from William Bradford’s account because he thought that the Native Americans were great compared to the Puritans who lived close by. Morton speaks of the Puritans using satire in his literary work New English Canaan. He built the Maypole in spite of them because he knew that this would make them angry: “And upon Mayday they brought the Maypole to the place appointed, with drumes, gunnes, pistols and other fitting instruments…The setting up of this Maypole was a lamentable spectacle to the precise separatists, that lived at new Plimmouth” (372). Thomas Morton’s Anglican religious views counter with William Bradfords Puritan views for New England and because of Morton’s actions and beliefs, he was kicked out of New England and sent back to England to be imprisoned.
Beaten for whatever reason just to enforce upon them who was in charge and what would not be tolerated, and at times beaten for no reason at all as this was slavery. In 1860 15 states had a population of 12 million, and of that one-third were slaves, and 2% were free African Americans. One in particular was once a former slave who eventually became free and educated and sought out to speak on the injustice of slavery. As Frederick Douglas spoke of his injustice in being sold as a slave and all he endured one can only imagine. In his speeches and writings he highlighted the torture slaves endured.
An iconic figure in the history of American literature, Walt Whitman was born on the 31st May 1819. Today his contribution and works in the poetic world have come to define sentimentalism, ambitions and some key experiences that Americans underwent in the 19th century. Even though he may have been politically inactive, his work had the will to display political views. Having survived through the civil war, he grew much affectionate perception on the nature and complexity of American polity. Whitman’s view of America was that of a culturally diverse society that we currently witness as such this vision was mainly expressed in his poetic works.
Tolstoy argues, rational knowledge cannot provide a clear answer to what is the meaning of life, because it explains that life is just a random of collections of cells forming and than passing. The randomness and purposelessness is what frightens Tolstoy, because he questions what is the point of living if he was not even specially formed for a special function. His argument is rooted in the idea that rational knowledge diminishes the sacredness of life by eliminating purpose. From his observations, he concludes life is sacred when viewed through the lens of religious faith; religious faith argues our purpose:a) is given by an omni-benevolent being, b) makes life meaningful, and c) contributes to something more than ourselves (Tolstoy 674). Tolstoy is not necessarily religious, but he
The Bible says, “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Romans 3:23, New International Version).” Dante’s expression is that despite our sinful ways God is willing and able to deliver us. Metaphorically speaking Jesus is the hero of men souls. Homer and Virgil served pagan gods whereas Dante sought truth and salvation in relation to the true and living God. It is important that Dante respond differently than that of Homer and Virgil because his fate depended on it. The heroes of Homer and Virgil’s time depended on their own personal strength regarding victory however Dante put his trust in the Lord for
Towards the end of the era people started to question Christianity and this was due to science and the push of industrial revolution (BBC Primary History- victorian England). This period was responsible for the loss of authority religion had. Charles Darwin ,a naturalist, had proposed a theory that god was created equal just like everyone else and was not a seperate creature like common belief. Darwin shocked many people and challenged old beliefs that had been passed on for generations. Despite the setback in religion during this time , many priests and missionaries keep the religion alive by writing books and spreading religion(Lang Sean 301).
The great German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche first stated the phrase “Gott ist tot” in his 1882 collection The Gay Science. The Death of God was a poignant motif that haunted Nietzsche until the day he died – inspiring him so that he became almost prophetic in heralding his gospel.  In Nietzsche’s view the Death of God didn’t mean the literal demise of a concrete deity, rather it conveyed his view that the static, unmoving God of the western world was no longer a definitive moral source for mankind – in our unrelenting progress. We must now realize that we are culpable of egotistical deicide and that we must recreate a moral compass to rectify this outrageous crime. And we may be closer to that realization than Nietzsche could have predicted.
For instance, Jefferson banished a white lad who sired a black baby to leave the state of Virginia lest she is placed out of the protection laws. This further affirms how difficult it was to overcome slavery in Virginia. Additionally, Southern Virginia had slave pricing and proceeds from such sales higher than those of stable food which further hindered any attempt for freedom . People with land tracts of farmlands in the southern Carolina and Georgia posit that ending slavery would adversely affect their farm proceeds
It is arguable that Fugitive Slave Act decreased abolitionist activity because it provided incentive for Northerners to comply with it. Federal commissioners who determined whether a person was truly free or not was paid a double fee whenever they decided someone a fugitive. Not only that, but any Northerners caught helping blacks, runaway or not, faced the risk of a thousand dollar fine and up to a year in jail. But, as argued by historian Lincoln Austin Mullen, in his article Fugitive Slave Laws (1793 and 1850), “Northern reaction to the law was swift and angry. Many Northerners, including some who had never before supported antislavery efforts, decried the injustice of the
Frederick Douglass was born a slave in 1817, but soon became one of the biggest names in all of history. By 1838, Frederick Douglass was able to escape slavery and go up North. The citizens of Rochester, New York, where Douglass settled in, asked him to give a speech to celebrate the Fourth of July. He agreed, however, instead of his speech being about celebrating freedom, he spoke about all the hypocrisy being held in the United States. The states represented freedom, and independence, yet there were millions of people being forced into a life of hard labor and no pay, slaves.
Reconstruction was a failure in many ways. Although Reconstruction did abolish slavery, African Americans did not truly gain their freedom and the nation was not unified. The Emancipation Proclamation that President Lincoln issued in 1863 to end slavery was unsuccessful. In a petition of black residents of Nashville sent to the delegates in 1865, they demanded slavery to be thoroughly abolished and for the right to vote (3). However, not only did many slave owners ignore Lincoln’s order, the Emancipation Proclamation did not eliminate slavery in the Union border states and states under control of the Union.
The Fugitive Slave Acts were an act of rebellion against slaves escaping. There was already the fugitive slave act that was created in 1793 to allow slave masters to force slaves back into captivity, but it was not enforced that much. By 1850, there were many slaves that escaped and the since there could not be any more slaves imported, the price of a slave rose exponentially. The new acts in 1850 forced any citizen who saw a runaway slave to catch them, and “It also denied slaves the right to a jury trial and increased the penalty for interfering with the rendition process to $1000 and six months in jail” (History.com). This was a method rebellion against slaves for escaping, but the act fell through quickly because by then, almost no one
The codes (1) prohibited blacks from either renting land or borrowing cash to shop for land. (2) Prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court. Johnsons also alienated and tried to stand against the Republicans in early 1866 when he vetoed a bill increasing the service and protection offered by the Freedmen’s Bureau and a civil rights bill that invalidated the Black codes. (Doc 2). This cause many problems with the “Radical Republicans”,who was looking for civil rights for African-Americans people in
Black slaves helped build the economic foundations of this nation of ours, and without them the colonists may have not flourished as they did. Even when they were ‘freed’, they were mistreated. In 1670, Virginia disfranchised landless freedmen and didn’t treat the freedmen on par with the white people. The black slaves struck out in New York in 1712 (with 9 whites and 21 blacks dead), and South Carolina in 1739,(with 21 whites and 44 blacks