The purpose of this research paper is to examine equivalence as a translation problem. Equivalence has made many controversies among scholars since its appearance in the field of translation until recent years. Although many debates around this notion, it still has the most attention in translation studies. For instance, Leonardi (2000) believes that equivalence is the central issue in translation although its definition, relevance, and applicability within the field of translation theory have caused heated controversy, and many different theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated within this field in the past fifty years. According to Halverson (1997, p.207-210) equivalence is defined as a relationship existing between two
With this, Widdowson (1983) strongly suggests that communicative competence be taught alongside with grammatical competence. To make the decision of teaching both linguistic and communicative competence clear, Widdowson distinguishes two aspects of performance: “usage” and “use”. He explains that “usage” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his knowledge of linguistic rules, whereas “use” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his ability to use his knowledge of linguistic rules for effective communication. He also distinguishes two aspects of meaning: “significance” and “value”. Significance is the meaning that sentences have in isolation from the particular situation in which the sentence is produced.
The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
Paradigms are ways of perceiving the world in terms of both the problems that can be addressed and the evidence that may have a bearing on their solution, says, Margherita Ulrych, a translation scholar. He continues, when the existing paradigm accumulated so many defects that it essentially becomes untenable, the paradigm is challenged and replaced by new ways of perceiving the world. Translation studies also witness profound paradigm shifts in recent years along with literature, linguistics, social studies, cultural studies etc. This shift is from strictly comparing the original source text with the target text to descriptive translation studies, where many fundamental issues pertaining to historical, social and cultural compulsions which
Tag sets or lexical tags have an essential role in POS tagging because they provide significant information about a word and its neighbors in a corpus. So, a standard set of tags is necessary for the task of POS tagging in any language. A POS tag set defines the list of morphosyntactic categories that are applicable at the word-level to a specific language and have one tag for each parts-of-speech. It is a set of coarse syntactic POS categories that exists in a similar form across languages. Therefore, the same tag set can be used for multiple languages because of its universal characteristics.
Therefore he is able to choose the most propet methods for translation. Generally, Reiss identified three text types: content-focused text, form-focused text, and appeal-focused text, which have different dominant functions. The language in a content-focused text is rather informative, while in a form-focused text what need to be emphasized is the esthetic and expressive effects. Appealing-focused texts intend to persuade the readers. Moreover, Reiss also provides a critical lens for assessing translation quality, through examining the shifts of the linguistic semantic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic elements in the target text.
Cohesion as described by Halliday (1991) is one of the features that combine to make up the textual component in grammar. The textual components include the structural components (theme – rheme), information and focus structure (the given and new) and cohesion (Grammatical and Lexical). Halliday and Hasan (1976), refer to grammatical cohesion as including reference, substitution and ellipsis while the lexical refers to the different forms of lexical repetitions. Therefore, cohesion as Halliday and Hasan (1976) describe is a semantic relation that is realized through the lexico grammatical system. These elements as pointed out determine the texture of a text.
Newmark sees culture as "the way of life and its manifestation [that] uses a particular language as its means of expression" (1998, p. 94). Finding the best equivalent for culture-specific items in translation is one of the main concerns for each translator. Translation, as defined by Miremadi (1993, p. 23), is a reciprocal process from one culture to the other and from other cultures into one culture. In other words, there is a “give-and-take process.” In this process, translators deal with non-equivalent words for which they should find an appropriate equivalent. James (2002, p. 27) explains that “translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions.” This definition supports the idea that translators are faced with the problem of how to deal with different cultural aspects implicit in the source text.
As mentioned previously; and secondly, the distinction between two levels of understanding .within and beyond word boundaries. My study relies on the definition of intelligibility and comprehensibility provided by Smith and Nelson. Due to two factors I) the respondents strike a balance between identifying and understanding words and ii)the respondents strike a balance between identifying and understanding words and ii) it is useful to investing these concepts both at intra-word and inter-words levels found in the