Theoretical Basis Of Special Education Essay

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Understanding of the Historical Concept of Education for Special Needs Children and Its Curriculum Development in Indonesia
There are several terms used in the area of education for special needs children. These are known, “special education” and “exceptional education”. Some of these terms have sometimes made people confused in using and distinguishing its meaning. According to Rachma (2014), the term of “special education” is a direct translation, and the term of “exceptional education” is a translation contains a sense of exaggerated. Furthermore, Walker (2014) explained that the term of “special education is a loaded term. However, the term of “special education” contains a stigma which is often associated with the meaning over identification of students, which need special education services and the inability of students to be treated equally within the classroom. While the term of “exceptional education” refers to the education for students with special needs as well. In
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Physical Impairment according to Somantri (2012: p. 121) is a damaged or hampered condition which is caused by the effect of bone and muscle breakdown, so that it reduces the normal capacity of individuals to follow the education or to be stand-alone. Based on Koening (cited in Somantri 2012: p. 123) the classification of physical impairment namely: (1) the damage which it has already carried since they was born such as, clubfoot, club hand, polydactylism, syndactylism, torticolis, spina-bifida, cretinism, myscrocphalus, hydrochepalus, clefpalats, hare-lip, congenital hip dislocation, and etc, (2) the damage since birth. (3) Infection, (4) condition of traumatic, (5) tumor, (6) and other conditions. Somantri (2012: p. 130) described that children with physical impairment, particularly with the type of polio have the same rate or condition with normal children in the area of language and speaking

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