Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are organic molecules found in every living organism. These macromolecules are large carbon based structures. The macromolecules are assembled by joining several smaller units, called monomers, together through a chemical reaction called dehydration synthesis. The resulting polymer can be disassembled through the complementary process called hydrolysis.Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio. This means that for every carbon atom present in the carbohydrate there are two hydrogen
The first test was Orthonitrophenylgalactophyranoside (ONPG), which tests for lactose fermentation, and my result was colorless so it was negative. Next was Arginine Dihydrolase (ADH), and my result was yellow/orange so it was negative. My results for Lysine Decarboxylase (LDC) were yellow/orange, which told me my unknown was negative. The Ornitine Decarboxylase (ODC) results were yellow so it, too, was negative. My Citrate (CIT) result was turquoise so that meant the test was positive, and the Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) had no black precipitate so it was negative. The Urea (URE) and Tryptophane Deaminase (TDA) results were both an orange color, which meant they were both negative. For Indole (IND), my result was yellow so it was negative. My result was colorless for the Voges Proskauer (VP) test so it was negative. The Gelatin (GEL) test result had no diffusion of pigment so that showed it was negative. The Glucose (GLU) result was yellow so it was positive, and the Mannitol (MAN) result was blue-green so it was negative. The Inositol (INO), Sorbitol (SOR), Rhamnose (RHA), and Sucrose (SAC) test results were all blue-green so they were all negative, as well as the Amygdalin (AMY) test. The Melibiose (MEL), Arabinose ARA, nitrate reduction, and catalase tests were all positive, and the oxidase test was
The investigation was carried out to identify the presence or absence of biological molecules in serum 2216. If the concentration in each test tube of the dilutions carried out will be more concentrated then the concentration of the test tube before it, then the color will be at an equal concentration with the other dilutions performed. The hypothesis was wrong because of the difference in concentrations due to the different measurements within the dilutions done. The test for starch was to add a drop of iodine solution to the pipette in the spotting tile. A reducing sugar solutions is add inside a test tube with 3 drops to then add 3 drops of benedicts and plane in a water bath. In a non-reducing sugar 3cm cubed and 10 drops of hydrochloric acid is placed in a test tube for a water bath of 5 minutes to be mixing afterwards. Biurets reagent is added to the protein solution to determine it presence. Testing for
The purpose of this lab was to use chemical and physical tests to identify indicators of disease in synthetic urine samples. This lab tested samples for protein levels, glucose levels, and pH levels. In a normally functioning individual, proteins cannot pass through the glomerulus; therefore proteins should not be found in urine. However, in the nephrons of individuals with Bright’s Disease, the glomerulus no longer stops all proteins from entering the urine (Giuseppe et al., 2002, pp. 357–358). Bright’s Disease is characterized by a change in the permeability of the glomerulus, which allows proteins to pass through and since the nephron has no way of reabsorbing proteins they are passed into the urine (Giuseppe et al., 2002,
permitted through facilitated diffusion involving glucose transporters. Glucose transporters are specialised for different cell types, for muscle and fat cells, type 4 glucose transporters (GLUT4) are used, as muscle cells are vital to athlete performance in the rainbow rage, GLUT4 shall be examined in this example. Firstly, insulin binds to insulin receptors on the surface of the cell. This sends a signal to GLUT4 vesicles from inside the cell initiating their movement to the cell wall. GLUT4 vesicles fuse to the outer cell membrane, catalysing the movement of glucose into the cell, this is the major endocytic process within cells. Glucose is then permitted entry into the cell by the process of facilitated diffusion, and can be used to produce ATP. Insulin
“Sugar in the Blood” is a book written by Andrea Stuart, female from diverse racial setting. She was born and raised in the Caribbean Island, in particular, the Barbados. Stuart decision of writing this book comes from inspiration from her earliest ancestors while she was sitting in a library located in Barbados Museum. The library appears to be harshly air-conditioned showing the pathetic condition of her ecological niche. Stuart used census records as the primary source of information and data. Despite the limitations of genealogical study present in the library, she builds various ideas from the sources even if it yields the skeleton and not
Fed Up is a documentary made in 2014 that is based on the issues caused by the American food industry. Fed Up, uncovers America’s true secrets about the food people consume every day. More specifically, it reveals the affect sugar has on people’s bodies. As a result, the amount of sugar in food, the bodies consent of glucose, and the satisfying taste it brings, too much sugar could cause certain sicknesses causing the body to not work the way it supposed to.
In laboratory, it is important to measure the concentration of proteins for research investigations. Biuret test is adopted to quantify proteins in fluid by using a spectrophotometer. The biuret solution is a blue solution made up of sodium hydroxide and copper (II) sulfate which turns pink or violet in the presence of proteins, peptides and compounds containing 2 or more peptide linkage. A spectrophotometer measures the respective amounts of light consisting of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution. Spectrophotometer works when white light is separated into lights of different wavelengths by a prism which different colors of light passes through the sample. The transmitted light strikes a photoelectric tube, converting light energy to electric current that is measured by a galvanometer. The transmittance reading measures the absorbance of reactants and determine the concentrations of protein
Biochemical tests are the tests used for the identification of bacterial species based on the differences in the biochemical activities of different bacteria. Bacterial physiology differs from one species to the other. These differences in carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, fat metabolism, production of certain enzymes and ability to utilize a particular compound help them to be identified by the biochemical tests. Gram’s stain was originally devised by histologist Hans Christian Gram in 1884. Gram-positive bacteria stain purple, while Gram-negative bacteria stain pink when subjected to Gram staining. Approximately 60-90% of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan and interwoven teichoic acid, while only
The Staphylococcus Epidermidis is classified as bacteria. Scientists reckon it to Firmicutes phylum and adjust it in Bacillales order of Bacilli class. This bacteria belongs to Staphylococcaceae family. As the name order, it is settled into Staphylococcus genus and S. Epidermidis species. S. Epidermidis makes its home on human skin, mucosal layer and nasal mucosa. Diseases can be taken form in human body and warm-blooded animals such as septicemia and endocarditis. In fact, S. Epidermidis is not too harmful on healthy tissue. The infection often occurs on newborn baby, drug users, and older people and those who need to use assistant devices on every part
Bio Chem lab Report 04 Enzyme Biochemistry Group Member: Chan Man Jeun Duncan (16002621) Law Sze Man (16000478) Introduction Enzyme is a protein base structure substance in our body. It works at a biocatalyst that will catalyzing the chemical reaction, which helps to speed up the chemical reaction. Enzyme could only function in specific shape, and the shape of enzyme is depending on the environment, therefore it is hard for an enzyme to function well in an extreme environment. The aim of this experiment is to see can the enzyme functions normally in different environment(pH, temperature and salt concentration) via using starch solution, amylase from saliva, 0.5M HCl solution, 0.5M NaOH solution and NaCl solution, and using iodine solution
With the use of colorimeter, it will show how much light can be transmitted through the solutions. When the cells in the solution are centrifuged, they go to the bottom of the tube to form pallets. The liquid above the pallet are clear then they are able to quickly transmit light. However if the cells has erupted, the hemoglobin is released will be left above the pallet and observed cloudy. This will cause the solution to have less light transmitted during the use of
The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.