Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a disease where the sugar levels in one’s blood is above the normal level. This is caused when the body does not produce enough insulin or the body’s cells do not respond correctly to insulin or both. A manifestation of diabetes in the eye is diabetic retinopathy .This affects the retina of the eye. It is when small vessels which are damaged spill into the retina. These blood vessels usually nourish the retina.
What are the symptoms of peripheral artery disease? Snippet: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a condition, in which a build-up of fatty deposits (atherosclerosis) in the arteries leads to the narrowing of the peripheral arteries and reduce blood flow to the legs, stomach, arms, and head. According to statistics, both men and women are affected equally by this condition. However, the prevalence increases as one age. The characteristic symptoms of PAD include-fatigue, heaviness, tiredness, or painful cramping in your hip, thigh or calf muscles that occur after certain activities, such as walking or climbing stairs.
N presents with include urinary frequency from a source of infection and a decrease in fluid intake is what’s causing Ms. N to feel confused. Urinary infection is another atypical presentation in elderly patient’s that may lead to urinary incontinence, acute confusion, causing Ms. N to experience increased risk for falling. Classic signs and symptoms in elderly patients that will cause them to have cognitive changes and include a loss of appetite. Moreover, Ms. N had normal lab values for SMA-24 and CBC, which suggested no infection and the fact that she was afebrile. Additional atypical symptoms that Ms. N has in this case study is sepsis without the abnormal leukocytosis, fever and a change in functional status (Flaherty & Zwicker,
Other conditions that cause anemia are HIV/AIDS, cancer, kidney disease, and sickle cell anemia. Primary polycythemia is caused by unregulated erythrocyte production. Polycythemia may occur because of hypoxia. When this occurs the body senses low oxygen levels and produces more erythrocytes to carry more oxygen to the body
 There are a few factors that could contribute to the development of Mr. Rowan’s symptoms. First is the age-related decrease in myocardial and vascular responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation that further impairs the ability of the cardiovascular system to respond to increased
The most common side effect of chelation therapy is a burning sensation at the site where the EDTA is injected into the vein. Rarely, side effects can include fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Serious and potentially fatal side effects, which are very rare, include heart failure; a sudden drop in blood pressure; abnormally low blood levels of calcium; permanent kidney damage; and bone marrow depression (meaning that blood cell counts fall). Infrequently, reversible kidney injury has been reported. Other serious side effects can occur if EDTA is not administered by a trained health professional.
Bronchial asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis are important disorders came under this group 2. RESTRICTIVE DISEASES Diseases which interfere with normal ventilation by restricting the expansion of thoracic cage, lungs and pleura are included in this group. Total lung capacity is decreased in this disease. The conditions like kyphoscoliosis, pleural effusion result in compression of lung and diminished expansion of thoracic
Intestinal ischemia Overview: Intestinal ischemia occurs when the blood vessels that flow bowel contract or block, thereby reducing the blood supply. Ischemia can affect the small intestine or colon, or both. The reduction in blood flow can cause pain and provide permanent injury to the bowel. The acute intestinal ischemia, or quickly stopping the direct circulation to the intestine, is an emergency and requires immediate surgery; that chronic, manifested in time, but must be treated because it can turn into acute or cause severe weight loss and malnutrition. Causes: The intestinal ischemia occurs when the direct circulation to the intestine decreases or stops completely.
Accumulation in the alveoli of excessive fluid, protein and inflammatory cells that have move into the air spaces from the alveolar capillaries. Intrapulmonary shunt develop and blood passing cannot be oxygenated. Alveolar type I and type II cells are spoiled causing surfactant dysfunction. Alveoli become unstable and collapse and fibrotic changes take place. Hyaline membranes help to the development of fibrosis and atelectasis (collapse) essential to decrease in gas exchange capability and lung dysfunction.
Leukoaraiosis, viewed as cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or low attenuation on computed tomographic scanning (CT), is common in patients with dementia. They have found a failure of elimination of interstitial fluid (ISF) from white matter, particularly connected with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Pathological studies and discovery of expanded perivascular spaces (PVS) by MRI in the white matter. Whereas, failure of eradication of ISF from the aging brain specifies failure in the disposal of soluble metabolites from the brain, where consequently there is a failure of homeostasis of the neuronal setting with significant consequences for the pathogenesis of dementia (Weller et al.,
These involve enzymatic deficiencies. The symptoms can be seen by muscle atrophies and abnormal liver function. Another symptom seen is low-blood sugar. There is, unfortunately, no cure and these diseases will end in fatality. The Clotting Factor Deficiencies are Factor XI Deficiency, Factor VII Deficiency, and Combined Factors V and VIII deficiency.