The limitations of the TRA led to the development of the TPB by Ajzen (1991) to predict behaviors where people have incomplete or low volitional control. The TPB accounts for factors outside individual control that may affect the development of intention and behavior. (1991) developed the theory of reasoned action through adding construct "perceived behavioral control" into the model as a determinant of behavioral intention and behavior, and called it as "theory of planned behavior". This social-psychological theory with regard to perceptions of performance control, attempts to predict involuntary behaviors, too. It determines the Impacts of three factors, i.e.
The first part measures risk taking behavior of individual versus couples and the second between married couples and couples formed by strangers. To measure risk-attitude we used the BART-Y experiment which is a youth version of the Bart experiment. which sybjects collect point rather than money. Participants are instructed that points are exchanged with lotteries that give prizes at the end of the testing session. Reliability and validity data on the BART-Y yielded similar results to the original experiment(BART), suggesting that dissemination of prizes can substitute cash as a reward.
Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the current research brought the concept of cause-related marketing into the model, and hypothesized that the consumer’s perceived cause moderates the relationship within TPB variables. 262 consumers of drugstores were gathered for testing. Test results confirm the applicability of TPB, of which subjective norm is the strongest predictor, followed by perceived behavior
Since the first publication of 16PF Questionnaire in 1949, five major revisions were commenced in 1956, 1962, 1968, and in 1993 (Cattell, H., & Mead, A. 2008). Nevertheless, despite the significant contribution to personality research by use of factor analysis Cattell’s theory is criticized. The most recognizable criticism of Cattell 's Sixteen Personality Factor Model is that regardless of numerous efforts the theory has never been completely reproduced. According to Howarth and Brown’s (1971) founding’s, there was ten factors that were unsuccessful to relate to characteristics presented in the 16PF model.
The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), developed together by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen suggests that an individual’s actions and decisions are done with the intention or reason that functions and cooperates with his/her subjective norm and attitude. The TRA predicts behavioral intent based on two factors: our attitudes and norms. Whenever our attitude lead us to do one thing but the relevant norms suggest we do something else (Azjen & Fizben, 1980). An intention is a plan, likelihood or determination to attain or accomplish something. It is a cognitive representation of a person’s readiness to perform a certain or given behaviour.
, 2004; Venkatesh a & Davis, 2000; Mali & Hassan, 2013; Park, 2009; Song, 2010). For this issue (86%) of the studies used (TAM) (Šumak, Heričko, & Pušnik, 2011). TAM suggests that Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), which is "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of physical and mental effort", influences Perceived Usefulness (PU), which is" the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his/her job performance" (Davis, 1989, p. 320). In turn, both beliefs influence Behavioral Intention (BI) to use a specific information technology. Figure 1 shows the original TAM and the connection among the construct between the causal links of both direct and indirect
However, Ajzen (1988) conceded that the theory of reasoned action was developed explicitly to deal with purely volitional behaviors. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was proposed by Ajzen, is an extension of the TRA which designed to predict behaviors not under complete volitional control. TPB includes the additional measures of control beliefs and perceived behavioral control (see Figure 1). The proposed relationship between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention is based on two assumptions. First assumption is increase in perceived behavioral control will result in an increase in behavioral intention and the likelihood of performing the act.
Secondly, the belief sets, esp those relating to attitude are unique to a specific setting, making it difficult to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior. This is in contrast to TAM which proposes a belief set, consisting of ease of use and usefulness, that is consistent and generalisable across diff setting. The 3rd model, The Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior addresses these 2 limitations of the Theory of Planned Behavior by recommending a set of stable, decomposed belief structures for the Theory of Planned Behavior
In Gardner’s review of the Socio-educational Model, he named the four overarching variables which are measured in the AMTB: (1) integrativeness, (2) attitude toward learning situation, (3) motivation and (4) language anxiety.  Other variables such as the instrumental orientation and parental encouragement in the AMTB are used in different settings or as