Exercise Motivation Literature Review

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Chapter Two: Literature Review In this chapter, the concept of exercise motivation is further explored through an overview of the theoretical framework and a review of the use of this popular theory on exercise and sports. The theoretical framework used to explore exercise motivation in this study was the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) as there have been many successful application of the theory to the areas of sports and exercise. SDT is a meta-theory that focuses on human motivation and personality. SDT is based on the following three assumptions that (1) humans are inherently proactive (2) humans have an inherent tendency toward growth and improvement (3) Humans’ basic psychological needs are universal, innate and important…show more content…
Extrinsic motivation is broken down into four forms of regulation. The lowest form of self-determination within extrinsic motivation is external regulation, which reflects action motivated by external rewards for the individual. Next, introjected regulation refers to the individual’s action being motivated by the need to avoid feeling guilty. Identified regulation occurs when the individual views that the action is important. Integrated regulation is the most autonomous form of extrinsic motivation and it occurs when regulations are fully assimilated and organised, although the individual still does not perform the task for the inherent enjoyment in the task. Lastly, the most self-determined form of motivation is intrinsic motivation because the individual is motivated by enjoyment from performing the task itself. Hence, the individual is most likely too engaged in the activity regularly (Deci and Ryan, 1985). One of the sub theories of the SDT is the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) which is related to intrinsic motivation. It states that humans have a need to have 3 basic psychological needs satisfied in order for well-being and health to occur for the…show more content…
They assessed self-determination, perceived competence, intrinsic motivation, goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, and teaching style. Measures of effort and persistence were based on teachers’ ratings. The findings provided partial support for CET, as perceived competence was moderately related to intrinsic motivation, but the relationship between self-determinations and intrinsic motivation was weak. The authors suggested that this could have been attributable to an overall limitation in the design of the study, in that all students were required to take the course, inherently limiting the potential for self-determination, as students might not have perceived that they had any choice to participate. Higher levels of intrinsic motivation, effort and persistence in class were related to perceptions of a mastery-oriented learning climate and perceived competence. Interpreting these results using CET, Ferrer-Caja and Weiss recommended that teachers emphasize learning processes rather than outcomes, foster participation rather than competition, and emphasize effort and improvement to facilitate intrinsic motivation. In summary, The purpose of this study is to seek to fill the gap in the literature by using a mixed approach study, using the qualitative component to derive a deeper understanding of exercise motivation in Singaporean
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