Exercises: Conversation Analysis (Speaking Framework)

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Topic: Conversation Analysis (Speaking framework)
Exercises:
Exercise 1: Answer these theoretical questions below:
1. What is the highest/ lowest level units of analysis?
2. What is speech event?
3. How can we explain the relation between analytical units?
4. How can we understand Hymes’ speaking frame working that is represented by SPEAK?
Answer:
1. The highest level unit of analysis is speech situation that includes all the features of a situation, some of which are not linguistic features. The lowest level unit of analysis is speech act that can be seen as every single utterance one makes.
2. Speech event is a basic unit of communication in which speech and use of language are considered crucial.
3. In the relation, speech event is an
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Speech situation.
10. Speech event.
Exercise 3: Decide whether these statements below are true or false, then correct the false sentences.
1. In Hymes’ speaking model, Setting always refers to place in which speech takes place and scene refers to the abstract psychological setting, or the cultural definition of the occasion.
2. Within a particular setting, participants are free to change scenes as they change the level of formality, or as they change the kind of activity in which they are involved.
3. In a conversation, the roles of hearers and speakers are often changed.
4. Ends refers to the conventionally recognized and expected time when the conversation needs to go to the end after information is exchanged throughout the talk.
5. Besides the tone, manner, or spirit in which a particular message is conveyed: lighthearted, serious, precise, pedantic, mocking, sarcastic, pompous, and so on, the key may also be marked nonverbally by certain kind of behavior, gesture, posture, or even deportment.
6. Code-switching between English and Italian in Toronto is a kind of
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Based on Genre in Hymes’ speaking model, we can infer that in the middle of a prayer in church, it can be seen as normal to hear a casual joke.

Answer:
1. F => In Hymes’ speaking model, Setting refers to place and time in which speech takes place and scene refers to the abstract psychological setting, or the cultural definition of the occasion.
2. T.
3. T.
4. F => Ends refers to the conventionally recognized and expected outcomes of an exchange as well as to the personal goals that participations seek to accomplish on particular occasions.
5. T.
6. F => Based on Genre in Hymes’ speaking model, we can infer that in the middle of a prayer in church, it can be seen as abnormal to hear a casual joke because particular genres seem more appropriate on certain occasions than on others.

Exercise 4: Identify the factors from Hymes’ analytic framework described in these statements below:
1. First they try to talk about furniture but the stuff reminds him of her ex-wife. Chandler and Joey try to joke about furniture and change the topic but cannot succeed. So they try to convince Ross that life goes on and there are a lot of opportunities out there and he can start over.
2. It takes place in Ross’s house which is vacant and they went there to put together the new

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