A conclusive discussion will be provided on how these three elements conflate with each other. These elements will be discussed in relation to Halliday’s theory of SFL providing specific examples to enact an understanding of these elements. Subject. According to Halliday & Mathiessen (2004), a clause contains one element which is the subject that is part of the syntactic principle. The subject acts as a grammatical function and it is therefore concerned with the message, the doer of the action and something that is being predicted.
Morgan (2006) suggests the following definitions for commonly used terms: Competencies: the energies, skills and abilities of individuals. Capabilities: the collective ability of a group or a system to do something either inside or outside the system. Capacity: the overall ability of an organization or system to create value for others. It is those capabilities that enable an organization to fulfil a function (”to do things”) and at the same time to sustain itself. He identifies “five core capabilities” in organizations and systems: the capability to act, the capability to generate development results, the capability to relate, the capability to adapt and the capability to achieve coherence (Morgan, 2006, p. 8-19).
As it is claimed by Florez (1999), speaking is “an interactive process of constructing meaning both its form and meaning depend on the context, the participants, their experiences, the environment and the purpose for speaking” (p. 1). Two people are needed to establish a conversation; that is why, speaking is considered an interactive process, where, through getting in contact, choosing topic, and contextualizing a situation can lead us to get a meaningful
Any word can carry two types of meaning: Denotative and connotative.TWs are no exception as they can be also interpreted denotatively or connotatively. According to Murphy (2010), denotative meaning is “the kind of meaning that is most directly represented in dictionary definitions of a word” (pp. 32–33). Whereas, connotative meaning refers to the affective or emotional representation that a word can evoke. Baker (1992) used " the term expressive meaning to describe meaning which conveys the feelings or attitudes of the speaker " (p. 13).
The nature, purposes and uses of language are the most basic information that has to be learnt in order to understand language. Language consists of three aspects, namely ‘sounds’, ‘meaning’ and ‘grammar’ (Bates, 2003). These three components work together to form language as a whole. ‘Sounds’ refer to how words are pronounced, which is studied in Linguistics in its subtopic, phonetics and phonology. ‘Meaning’ refers to how words are given meaning or description, explained in the subtopics semantics and lexicon while ‘grammar’ refers to the rules in which meaning and sounds come together, further explained by morphology and syntax, also subtopics of Linguistics.
Formed with two words: Systematic and Function, SFG make sense of meaning in language usage. Subject, Actor and Theme are essential to the construction of a clause. The subject plays an important role in a clause. Divided in three parts, psychological, grammatical and logical subject, each function is important to one another to make sense of the clause. Depending on the clause, it then evaluates to be called, Subject, Actor and Theme.
In order to realize how difficult it is to express meanings so that they can be easily understood, one has to grasp that not every word has only one meaning and that not every meaning is expressed in only one word. There are three units of meaning: 1. Morpheme, a minimal unit of a language which can be free (it can stand alone as a word) and bound (a grammatical unit (affix) which cannot function as a word, but is always attached to another morpheme); 2. Lexeme, a language unit that may consist of one or more morphemes; and 3. Sentence, a grammatical construction that is complete in itself.
In attempting to express themselves, people do not only produce utterances containing grammatical structure and words, they perform actions via those utterances. Action performed via utterances called speech act (Yule; 1996) By doing speech acts, the speaker tries to convey purpose or intention of communication, which is understandable by the hearer or addressee. According to Austin, J. L. (1962) there are 3 types of speech act, and those are Locutionary act which is roughly equivalence to uttering sentence with a certain sense and reference, which again is roughly equivalent to ‘meaning’ in traditional sense, Illocutionary Act Illocutionary act such as informing, warning, ordering and undertaking i.e. utterances witch have a certain (conventional) force, and Perlocutionary act is what we bring about or achieve by saying something such as convincing, persuading, deterring, and even say, surprising, or
The principle of speech act theory is by saying something, we actually doing something. In other words, speech acts means an utterance that has performative function in languages and communication. Moreover, Austin (1975) states that utterances can perform three kinds of act. First, locutionary act is the act of saying something or producing a series of sounds which mean something. Second, the illocutionary act is a performance of an act in saying something as opposed to performance of an act such as informing, ordering, and warning.