Pessimism is conceptualised as a lens under which the values of life are viewed with a sombre temperament that distorts one’s appreciation for life itself, by ignoring its good aspects, thus lowering one’s expectations. Arthur Schopenhauer is often understood as the greatest pessimist in Western philosophy despite never formally characterising himself as such. He does however use the concepts “optimism” and “pessimism” to classify certain conceits of suffering in his philosophy on human existence in order to classify the ‘good’ and ‘evil’ that pervade the human condition. Schopenhauer articulates what he perceives as the cruel realities of the pain that comes with life, by asserting that human existence is burdened by the twin poles of human suffering; want and boredom, stressing that ‘will’ dictates the cursor towards these ends, 1850, p: 45. In the matter of good and evil, can pessimistic judgments about life, such as the one expressed in the quotation by Schopenhauer, be an objective philosophical analysis of human existence?
According to Galen Strawson, moral responsibility to punish some of us with eternal torment (hell) and rewards others with eternal bliss (heaven). I am going to argue that we cannot be morally responsible for our actions which is also Strawson’s argument. He has a basic argument that claims you perform the action that you perform because of the way you are, in particular mental respects. To be truly morally responsible for your action, you must be truly morally responsible for your character, personality, and motivational structure or in other words, who you are. We are born with determined predispositions that we are not responsible for and we are exposed to certain influences that we are not responsible for.
But I do not think they are. I think the suppression of a higher religion by a lower, or even a higher secular culture by a lower, a much greater evil" (77). Lewis also shared his belief that the Christian case for Pacifism rests on certain Dominical utterances, such as "Resist not evil; but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other
How do I Make Moral choices, in a World of Moral Ambiguity? A desire for meaning would also include obtaining some kind of “identity,” or individualism. Yet, society or someone will try to force their “ideal” moral system onto everyone else. “Thinking may be “good for nothing” in the world, but in the mind it is good for guidance—not legislation, but guidance” (Bruehl 193). If you base your moral standards off everyone else’s, even when in truth you think in a different way, then in the eyes of an existentialist, you have been degraded and reduced to an object.
ABSTRACT It is inherent to human beings to strive to achieve. But in some men, this tendency augments to bigger proportions and often leads to disastrous results. Nietzsche’s Ubermensch strives to become superior individual beyond being 'human all too human '(Nietzsche), establishing own values and affecting lives of others. Both Raskolnikov in Crime and Punishment (1866) and Balram in The White Tiger (2008) can be examined from Nietzsche’s concept of Ubermensch. Nietzsche’s exposition of The Will to Power and Superman Substantiate that a man should strive for the higher self and find the essence of existence without merging it with moral values.
He says that each philosophy is an insight into a philosopher’s thinking and prejudices. Since philosophers cannot be entirely objective, Nietzsche criticizes each of their philosophies. He uses Kant and Stoics as two examples, and says that instinct is what drives these philosophies and that is problematic because instinct, to him, is biasness.
Blake underlines the unjust and uncompassionate institutionalized religion as a human construct. Blake suggests that the origins of such social ills are forged by divided selfhood, creating a ‘God’ and social order in their own image. Poem is a remarkably ambitious examination of institutionalized virtues and its progressive enrichment. Blake epitomizes the reasoning through…Man only sees the portion of existence that is comprehendible to his corporeal understanding. Man is unable to apprehend the quintessential idea that virtue is equal to vice; for virtue cannot exist if there is no vice.
On Authority and the Dichotomy of Morality “It is dangerous to be right in matters on which the established authorities are wrong.” -Voltaire, The Age of Louis XIV Authority comes in many forms, and all of them, at some point, by someone, are resisted. Be it for selfish purposes, for others’ good, or for the sake of resistance in and of itself, it is done. This quote by Voltaire offers a hard to contest critique on the nature of society, and of both the people within it and the authorities that govern it. In other words, it states that people lauded for being right have no interest in being told they are not, and tend to be in a position where they can make sure that they are not, much to the detriment of those who wish to do so. It is
Not only that, he thought that the way this term was exploited in society corrupted its meaning. Nietzsche claims that the idea of punishment relies heavily on how the agent has free will and chose to go against social conduct, which implies that the notion of free will was created as a ploy in order to create and foster guilt. Furthermore, he believes that a subject who acts under his or her supposed free will, and thus is responsible for some crime, is not really free as this subject or agent is restrained by social regulations. In other words, Nietzsche found that free will is a contrivance so that we are able to judge people guilty. Nonetheless, he argues that we cannot ultimately assign accountability because we are not free.