Hence, it is not surprising that they focus on either thoughts or behaviours as reasons for emotional disturbances. Adlerian therapy and REBT attributes emotional problems mainly to unconscious schemas. They look to correct mistaken logic and faulty thinking to evoke behavioural and emotional changes. While Reality therapists are also concerned about the client’s thinking, it differs from the others as, the first point of change is usually behaviour. Reality therapists do not focus on mistaken thoughts but rather, ineffective actions that clients engage in in attempts to achieve goals and needs they have in mind, in their Quality World.
According to Daryl self perception is “A person’s view of him or herself and of any mental or physical attribute that makes up the person’s self. The perception theory of how self knowledge unfolds.” It assumes that internal states are inferences resulting from observation of one’s behaviour (Tuntufye., 1993: 267). Understanding how people get to know themselves is important because self knowledge is a foundation which people use in the process of forming values, preferences and attitudes. Clear self knowledge helps people make decisions in daily life, whereas the absence of well defined self knowledge can render an individual unable to make these decisions. The self perception theory consists of two basic claims.
Variables, events, and other factors that block the counseling process. In order to explore other blocks of therapy, one must appreciate what constitutes a successful counseling process. Effective counseling processes are contingent on the existence of a cognitive component that governs the course of talk therapy. The author believes that this cognitive component depends upon the biological and social factors present in the client’s life, and the client needs to be able to participate actively in therapy with a sense of responsibility while the counselor utilizes their learned skills and techniques. There are various levels of participation required depending on what outcomes are considered successful.
Anti-oppressive practice focuses on the structural inequalities and places the blame that service users internalize on the structures and systems themselves (Ajandi, 2018). Humanistic and social justice values and ideas shape anti-oppressive practice (Healy, 2015). They address inequalities that affect opportunities of service users, due to the interlocking of social relations and oppression (Burke & Harrison, 2002). AOP aims to identify oppressions and define ways in which social workers can attempt to become anti-oppressive, avoid discomfort, and end oppression to service users (Strega, 2007). It highlights mutual involvement between the social worker and the service user, challenging forms of oppression and inequalities (Burke & Harrison, 2002), and presents the idea that service users do not occupy a “single identity”, but instead have interlocking oppressions that work together to put clients at a social disadvantage (Strega, 2007).
Conversely, the attribution theory deduces the cause of behavior from behavioral consequences. Hence, the attribution is the causal explanation and inference that the observers make to predict and evaluate human behavior. In summary, attribution is seeking causes of results. That is to say, people analyze their own behavior or others by utilizing their perceptions, thoughts, judgments and so on, and then they find out and explain the reasons for those behaviors. Therefore, attribution is an important component of human cognitive process, as well as an important influence on the formation of self-concepts.
Bandura describes an agent as someone who intentionally influences one’s functioning and life circumstances; “In this view, people are self-organizing, proactive, self-regulating, and self-reflecting. They are contributors to their life circumstances not just products of them” (Bandura, 2005, p. 1). Self-Efficacy was developed by Albert Bandura’s as part of a larger theory, the Social Learning Theory (Ashford & LeCroy, 2010), which has progressed into the Social Cognitive Theory (Levin, Culkin, & Perrotto, 2001). Social Cognitive Theory was presented by Bandura in
In contrast to Freud, for whom the victim’s best interest is endangered by internal sexual urges rather than the actual knowledge of the abusive event. Also, without the abusive guardian figure, food, shelter and family life is jeopardized, so it is in the victim’s best interest to suppress the event. “Betrayal trauma theory posits that from a logical analysis of evolutionary pressures and cognitive architecture, we can expect that there will be information blockage under certain conditions (of which sexual abuse is likely to be an example) and that this information blockage will create various types of traumatic
In existential therapy, therapists are mainly concerned with " understanding the subjective world of clients to help them come to new understandings and options." (Corey, 2009, p. 148). Helping clients accept the responsibility of their own lives allows them to move from emotional angst and self-deception, toward the joy of achieving personal potential (Corey, 2009). The therapist acts as a mirror, of sorts, to reflect some of the self-imposed constrictions and limitations preventing the client from further growth. Most existential therapists use a variety of loosely stated techniques with
Personality refers to a set of individual differences in characteristic patterns that affect how a person think, feel and behave of various life event(Israel Ali,2012) Humanistic perspective: This perspective emphasizes on the capability of human to think consciously and rationally. Humans considered as having free will, therefore it is possible for people to choose their destiny and achieve self actualization. From Maslow 's hierarchy of needs , self-actualization refers to the priority of human motivation, the most advanced drive of humans, the goal of our inner personality and our attempt to recognize ourselves. ( ) In addition, Humanistic Psychologist Carl Rogers proposed the idea of self-concept. The ideal self is the one you would
Freud says” In order to deal with problems and conflict in life ,the ego consumes a variety of different defense mechanisms. These defense mechanisms work at an unconscious level and make good things feel better for the person. A few examples of defense mechanisms are Repression which is burying something like a horrible feeling from your awareness this can sometimes be considered as a basis of other defense mechanisms, Denial is another defense mechanism which would be not accepting reality because it is too painful to come to terms with it and a final example would be Regression this would be like regressing back to an earlier age in life, a less mature way of dealing with certain feelings or
Hepworth, et al. (2013) states, “Cognitive-behavior therapy attempts to alter the individual 's interpretation of self and his or her environment and the manner is which he or she creates interpretations”(409). CBT alters the client 's negative view of self and of their environment and helps them achieve a positive perspective. Pogosian (2010) indicates that the therapist role was to teach Dee positive decision making skills, to commend Dee for making positive behavioral changes, and to challenge Dee 's negative thinking
What is the planned change process? Planned change process is a strategy where changing a condition, pattern of behavior, or situations in a way that will improve a client 's ability to interact in social settings. According to the table on page 119 of the textbook, the foundation for generalist social work practice is to engage, assess, plan, implement, evaluate, and terminate. Engagement is when they see a problem and establish communication to try resolving a problem. Assessment is when a practitioner contains a rough image of their clients ' strenghths and needs.
Occupational Therapists (OT) need to be aware of cultural and societal factors that impact habits. They need to anticipate psychosocial results due to disability, identify a client’s roles and habits that may be impacted and consider a client- centered approach with their rehabilitation goals. Life
In cases of significant client paranoia, it is possible and even likely that overt attempts at engagement (such as self-disclosure) may be experienced as threatening more so than connecting. In contrast, non-disclosure and some extent of mirroring may help to encourage a basic level of initial comfort if not modulated-paranoid anxiety. In cases of borderline personality, self-disclosure may reinforce poor boundaries and encourage enmeshment. As an alternative, non-disclosure may help to model appropriate boundaries, encourage gradual relationship development, and teach frustration tolerance. When clients present with narcissism or antisocial personality, self-disclosure may be interpreted as a sign of weakness while non-disclosure may symbolize clinically appropriate forms of strength and non-suggestibility.