Although they are seen as a major pest for turfgrass managers they are many benefits to be gained from having earthworms in the soil. Earthworms cause nutrients tried up in organic matter to be released back into the soil, creating a sticky organic molecule that will form a good crumb structure in the soil, which therefore prevents the leaching of nutrients (Ford 2002). “It may be doubted whether there are many other animals which have played so important a part in the history of the world, as have these lowly organised creatures” – (Charles Darwin 1881) You could say that earthworm’s most important role is in the decomposition process within the soil leading to an increase in the nutrient availability and soil fertility. Earthworms can improve the rooting of plants through infiltration rates and the modification of soil structure and soil aeration. They are also beneficial as they reduce thatch and tend to increase the fertility and health of a soil (Reicher
Mixing .20 milligrams of the commercial dye (red dye #3) with 250 ml of distilled water to get the initial concentration, the goal is basically to get the absorbency level below 1. Putting the dye solution in the blank cuvette and observe the absorbance level that it dorms. Repeat the steps five times making different dilutions to maintain multiple absorbance values. The second week was making another commercial dye solution and also testing the food dye brought into class. Calibrate the spectrophotometer the same exact way so that it does not mess up the calculations gathered.
These creatures are asexual, live deep within soil and often assist in decomposition. I think it will be interesting to see whether they too are affected by something that we humans are exposed to and ultimately expose earthworms to, without knowing. I find this interesting as most of us do not often consider these small creatures in our lives, to many they are simply bird food but in actual fact they are a major part of our world and a component of nature. Earthworms have the ability to recycle organic waste in to compost; they fertilize soil as well as improve the water holding qualities of soil. Thus improving soil structures.
Using a disposable plastic pipet, worms were transferred with a bit of spring water to the viewing chamber and given a few minutes to settle to their new surroundings. The viewing chamber was then placed under the dissecting microscope at the lowest power, which helped with focusing on the middle body region of the worm to measure pulsation rates. Using a stopwatch, the basal rate of the worm was obtained by counting the number of pulses that moved through a segment in a thirty second interval, this amount was multiplied by two to result in units of beats per minute. Three basal rates were recorded for each of the three individuals warms to calculate their mean rate. Worms A, B and C were then placed into separate containers containing the caffeine treatment solution.
This includes: Using all five fruit flavored skittles throughout this experiment. Using fifteen different participants (5 per trial) in order to prevent a mixing of flavors, which might alter the experiment. Materials: Five blindfolds One pack of skittles Pen and paper to record results Gloves for sanitary use Method: Since there is no eating allowed inside of the laboratory, this experiment will be held outside of it. 1. Gather materials (pen and paper, blindfold, pack of skittles, gloves).
To begin the lab, first take a pencil and trace nine spinner shaped designs on the paper (each of the two wings should be around 3 inches each and the overall width should be 2.5 inches in the middle). 2. Then cut out all nine of the spinners. 3. Next place a seed in the middle of a spinner and tape it down so that the seed not fall off (repeat this step with the rest of the seeds/spinners).
The part of AM fungi in ecosystem is obvious, but the implication of AM fungi biodiversity on ecosystem-level measures is less arguable (Heijden & Sanders, 2002). Commonly, the AM fungi is always applied as ecological system model of symbioses, soil biota, and communities. Moreover, functional diversity in the AM fungi has been demonstrated to affect ecological systems at population, community, and ecosystem-level as a result of responses interactions with plants and soil microflora or microfauna (Caruso et al.,
Allelopathic test: Hundred and fifty grams (150 g) of sand was placed on eight petri dishes respectively. On each dish, fifty (50) S. Alba seeds were placed, arranged in equal distance between each seed. Following that, forty five milliliters (45 ml) of H. Pilosella extract of varying suitable concentration (see table 1) was poured into the petri dishes. The number of germinated seeds was noted down every day for the next seven days. At the end of the seventh day, using a random number generator and a simple grid, fifteen seedlings were collected for stem and root length measurement from each group in order to investigate a possible allelopathic effect on the development of S. Alba