Within a few weeks of the wedding Baba dies in his sleep, even when everyone suspects that baba is nearing death Amir never confesses his guilt of removing Hassan and Ali from the family because he fears that if that was to happen baba might disown him. Ten years pass but Amir never tells Soraya, his wife about him and Hassan or of his betrayal and guilt. One day he gets a call from kaka Rahim, his father’s friend from Afghanistan , kaka Rahim tells him about how Hassan’s son is held in an orphanage in Afghanistan and requires help. Amir heads for Afghanistan without telling Soraya why. In Afghanistan Amir meets kaka Rahim and finds out that Hassan’s son Sohrab is in the house of one of the leading members of the Taliban where Amir goes to rescue Sohrab and gets beaten up badly.
Henning writes “In simple terms, the expectancy-value theory suggests that students assess the success or failure of their learning based on how consistent this is with their expectation” (Henning 17). This means that if a student meets or exceeds their own expectations then they will define what they did as a success, but if a student does not meet their expectations then they will define what they did as a failure. Since, Nieman was not even a core member of his first band, it was very unlikely that Fletcher would choose him, meaning that Nieman had low expectations. However, since Nieman is chosen by Fletcher, he far exceeds his expectations and sees himself as being very successful. Henning also writes about how this expectancy-value theory relates to motivation.
As Amir and Baba were in the garden Amir brought up a topic that Baba had never thought or wanted to, he asked “if he had ever thought about getting new servants?” Baba was in disgust when he heard those words come out of Amir’s mouth. This made Baba angry and also made Amir see that if he wanted Hassan kicked out of the house he would have to do it discreetly. As Amir’s birthday was coming up there was much planning to do so Hassan was kept busy. After the party Amir saw Hassan and Ali leave the residence so he decided to finally get Hassan to leave. He then planted the money and the watch Baba had gotten him for his birthday under the Haasan's bed.
This could be the reverse as the individual could expect that his effort or lack of it, will not allow him to perform to task properly. 2.3.7 P-O Expectancy: Vroom called this “instrumentality” but it is more popularly known as performance-outcome expectancy. This means that the individual believes that his level of performance will lead to a partial set of outcomes. According to the theory, E-P expectancies, P-O expectancies and variable of outcomes influence motivation of individuals and if this motivation is to be increased, these factors must be multiplied 2.3.6
Bass’s extension of work by Burns takes the term ‘transforming’ and converts it to ‘transformational’ and chooses the term of influence instead of charisma to motivate and stimulate followers (Creative Commons Attribution, n.d.). Bass and Burns have both agreed that transformational leadership is the key application for organizational success (Bennett, 2009). Yet while Burns and Bass both distinguish transformational and transactional concept, Bass’s most notable idea is that a leader can exhibit both styles equally (Kuhnert, & Lewis, 1987). The idea presented by Bass is that a leader can implement both transactional and transformational leadership to create a more stable work environment (Gelard, Boroumand, & Mohammadi,
In the first experiment, participant's efficacy expectancy and outcome expectancy were manipulated. Sanna (1992) provide false performance feedback (high and low) after participants work on a task to manipulate their efficacy expectancy. On the other hand, their outcome expectancies were also manipulated by doing a task in 3 conditions: perform alone (low-outcome expectancy), in coacting pairs but evaluated individually (high-outcome expectancy), or in collective pairs in which performances could be evaluated together (low-outcome expectancy). There were 144 participants, 24 of them were in alone condition and 12 pairs in each of the coaction and collective conditions, randomly assigned to the six cells of the research design. The participants arrived alone or in pairs.
Expectancy Value theory, denotes that ones ability is based on self-perception (Wiggfield & Eccles. 2000). High and low incentive value goals explicate that people will aspire to conquer goals dependent on the value of the incentive with that of the goal value. Situational and environmental attributions have a vast effect on successful motivation. Various studies have been conducted to determine the specific external factors that lead to the decline or subsequent incline of motivation.
The theory indicates that a person’s motivation emanates from trusting, that they will acquire what they wish in the form of a reward. Expectancy theory of motivation has three main elements. They are expectancy, instrumentality and valence. These elements interact to establish “Motivation Force” (Redmond, 2016). Expectancy can be expressed as the trust that’s superior or greater efforts will harvest better performance.
This will help in staff retention and even attract quality, workers. It will also lead to higher motivation and improve a better customer service to prevent customers run away to competitors. This little pay adjustments will translate into wise savings for the organizations in the long run. Another recommendation is to improve their comparative equity of the workplace benefits. Prata Wala management can tie up with supermarkets and retail clothing outlets so that their staff can enjoy discounts.
Satisfaction exists when an individual accepts that a ratio of input (how much money and time they spent and how much pain they had, etc.) and output of the service (how much better their health become) is fair. Moreover, equity theory relates to social comparison theory because an individual compares a value of the service he or she received to other individuals (Bowling et al., 2012; Linder-Pelz, 1982; Newsome & Wright, 1999; Swan, Sawyer, Van Matre, & McGee, 1985; Williams, 1994). 3.4.6 Multiple models theory Contrary to the Linder-Pelz theory, Fitzpatrick proposed three independent models of patient satisfaction which consider that satisfaction cannot be a single concept but is formed by several determinants. First model explains that