At first glance expectancy theory would seem most applicable to a traditional-attitude work situation where how motivated the employee is depends on whether they want the reward on offer for doing a good job and whether they believe more effort will lead to that reward. However, it could equally apply to any situation where someone does something because they expect a certain outcome. For example, I recycle paper because I think it 's important to conserve resources and take a stand on environmental issues (valence); I think that the more effort I put into recycling the more paper I will recycle (expectancy); and I think that the more paper I recycle then less resources will be used (instrumentality) Thus, Vroom 's expectancy theory of motivation is not about self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes. Expectancy theory in comparison to the other motivation theories There is a useful link between Vroom 's expectancy theory and Adam 's Equity theory of motivation: namely that people will also compare outcomes for themselves with others. Equity
Vroom, V. (2010, para. 2) states, “the expectancy theory of motivation provides an explanation as to why an individual chooses to act out a specific behavior as opposed to another”. The theory consist of three main components Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence. Each components share a similarity when dealing with one who is motivated in seeking greater rewards. The first component is Expectancy known as Effort, when an employee believes that high level of effort will lead to outcome of interest such as performance or success.
•This theory stresses upon the desires and observation; what is genuine and real is insignificant. •It accentuates on prizes or pay-offs. •It concentrates on mental lavishness where last target of individual is to accomplish greatest joy and least pain Limitations of the Expectancy Theory •The expectancy theory is by all accounts hopeful on the grounds that very much a couple of people see high degree relationship between execution and prizes. •The use of this theory is constrained as prize is not specifically connected with performance in numerous associations. It is identified with different parameters likewise, for example, position, exertion, obligation, education, and so on.
➢ Performance expectancy is the degree to which an individual believes that using the system will help him or her to attain gains in job performance. ➢ Effort expectancy is the degree of ease associated with the use of the system. ➢ Facilitating condition is the degree to which an individual believes that an organizational and technical infrastructure exists to support use of the
This could be the reverse as the individual could expect that his effort or lack of it, will not allow him to perform to task properly. 2.3.7 P-O Expectancy: Vroom called this “instrumentality” but it is more popularly known as performance-outcome expectancy. This means that the individual believes that his level of performance will lead to a partial set of outcomes. According to the theory, E-P expectancies, P-O expectancies and variable of outcomes influence motivation of individuals and if this motivation is to be increased, these factors must be multiplied 2.3.6
The theory indicates that a person’s motivation emanates from trusting, that they will acquire what they wish in the form of a reward. Expectancy theory of motivation has three main elements. They are expectancy, instrumentality and valence. These elements interact to establish “Motivation Force” (Redmond, 2016). Expectancy can be expressed as the trust that’s superior or greater efforts will harvest better performance.
Rewards and recognition vary in definition but still convey the same idea of distinguishing and motivating employees. These perks can be given at anytime, specifically at the beginning, middle, or end of a company goal just as long as they align the incentives with an organization’s mission and goals. When properly implemented, rewards and recognition helps aid a company in the pursuit of strategic and operational goals. In a global economy with millions of businesses vying for customers, an organization must be able to motivate and properly compensate employees or risk falling behind competitors or worse, have employees with knowledge of the organization leave for competitors. With employee rewards and recognitions, one must understand the human need for acceptance, an accurate definition for reward and recognition, how rewards and recognition aid in meeting the human need for acceptance and motivation, the importance of having an employee rewards and recognition system in place, the benefits of this system, and various types of monetary and non-monetary aspects of an employee rewards and recognition system.
2007, p. 14). Based on an examination of what needs to be done in order to reach a desired goal (these are called outcome expectancies), the person supposedly then analyses his or her own capability to complete the necessary actions (they are called
Job satisfaction is an outcome of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. CHARACTERISTICS/INFLUENCES ON JOB SATISFACTION 1) JOB ITSELF Satisfaction depends on how many opportunities an individual is getting to learn and explore and the extent to which interesting tasks are been provided to the individual. 2) PAY The amount
However, although expectancy- value theory can be used to explain central concepts in uses and gratifications research, there are other factors that influence the process. For example the social and psychological origins of needs, which give rise to motives for behavior, which may be guided by beliefs, values, and social circumstances into seeking various gratifications through media consumption and other nonmedia behaviors. Expectancy value theory suggests that “people orient themselves to the world according to their expectations or beliefs and evaluations”. Utilizing this approach, behavior, behavioral intentions, or attitudes are seen as a function of expectancy or belief – the perceived