Mostly the hypothesis do not got further in the scientific method due to the fact that it can be difficult to gather sufficient supporting evidence. A null hypothesis is the hypothesis that is false or does not have effect. Most often during the test, the scientist tries another branch of idea which may work and this is referred to as alternative hypothesis. 5. LITERATURE
It was not effective and inconvenient to use, the main reason was the size, which was too big, and the use of phone was limited because it requires a powerful transmitter. After a long period of development, the first cellphone was invented in 1973. Although they had minimize the shape and made huge changes to a variety of parts in the phone, there were still problems that affect the use of cellphone and it requires science to improve in order to make it more effective. The main problem is the distance limitation that reduces the ability of communication. People weren’t able to communicate with each other in a long range or distance, which is very disturbing for the users.
He thought that induction was not a valid proof technique. Scientists should be critical and skeptical. Trying to reach the truth was ”one of the strongest motives for scientific discovery”. But ’the truth’ does not exist according to Popper. We only get closer to it.
Reports indicate that large numbers of IS development efforts result in systems that do not function as envisioned, are not used, or are never delivered (Gibbs, 1994; Jones, 1995; Lyytinen and Hirschheim, 1987). The Standish Group research (1999) shows a staggering 31.1% of projects are cancelled before they get completed. Further results indicate that 52.7% of projects cost over 189% of their original estimations. Only 16.2% of software projects are completed on-time and on-budget. Even when these projects do get completed, many are no more than a mere gumshoe of their original specification requirements (Standish survey, 1999).
In a study done at Michigan State University in 1983, Donald Freeman and his associates selected five standardized tests that were given nationwide, as well as four textbooks that were widely used to see if the material on the tests is covered in the textbooks. They found that 50 to 80 percent of the questions on the test were not adequately covered in the textbooks. Michigan researchers said, “The proportion of topics presented on a standardized test that received more than a cursory treatment in each textbook was never higher than 50 percent” (Popham). This proves that some teachers, while it is not their fault, do not appropriately prepare their students for these tests, because the material is barely discussed in the textbook. Those teachers who are unfamiliar with the type of questions that are on the state assessments are going to assume that if it is truly meant to test how well students learn, then it will assess them based on how the subject in question is taught locally.
However, his emphasis on rigorous experimental techniques and scientific methods did have an important influence in the field of psychology. One of the biggest problems with Hull 's drive reduction theory is that it does not account for how secondary reinforcements reduce drives. Unlike primary drives such as hunger and thirst, secondary reinforcements do nothing to directly reduce physiological and biological needs. While Hull 's theory has largely fallen out of favor in psychology, it is still worthwhile to understand the effect it had on other psychologists of the time and how it helped contribute to later research in psychology. Lewin’s Field Theory Kurt Lewin’s field theory flourished between 1935 and 1960.
The understanding derived from computer studies of complicated models can sometimes be substantially less complete than 15 that gained from the analytic methods of classical applied mathematics and theoretical physics. The early days of computers mechanical calculators saw them used by theoretical physicists in conjunction with analytic approximations, to explore previously intractable problems. The result, however, was that at every step there was preserved an intuitive understanding of the relation between the underlying assumptions and the results. In contrast, many scientists who today use computers to explore increasingly complex mathematical models have little formal background in mathematics, or have forgotten what they were once taught. Most of this work is interesting and excellent.
Furthermore, some age groups and some of the participants were excluded from the study due to some physical and cognitive inability which is considered another limitation for this study. The study could easily be replicated in other contexts. Assumptions are statements that are taken for granted or are considered through even though they have not been scientifically tested. Since assumptions influence the development and implementation of research process. Therefore, recognition of assumption by researcher is strength.
While the behaviourist approach can be used to explain simple tasks, it becomes much more problematic in the learning process when tasks and objectives become more complex, such as with higher education. Even though behaviourism has had a major impact on the education in the western world, some critics highlighted the theory’s limitations by stating it was merely a scientific model that has been tested in a laboratory under specific test conditions, and how humans have a higher cognitive process than animals. They also found the theory to be dehumanising and unethical, not to mention that there was no consideration to the humans’ thought complexity compared to animals. A possible problem in relation to teachers utilising behavioural strategies in the classroom, such as praise or time-out, is the potential for haphazard, inconsistent and incorrect implementation (Angela M O’Donnell 2012, p
The system lacks the ability to distinguish between original research and fraudulent or redundant work which affects researchers’ motivation to undertake new and pioneering research. Furthermore performance evaluation based simply on quantity of research discourages researchers from undertaking original research. As a result researchers prefer to work on simple subjects and do repetitive and imitative research and focus on quantity. In addition to this lack of proper connection with other research organizations also functions as a barrier in doing quality research as there is insufficient access to scientific references (libraries, scientific database subscriptions, full text articles, documents, etc.) or possibility of exchange programs.