Expert Systems: Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence

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2.2. Expert systems
Expert systems are computer programs that are derived from a branch of computer science research called Artificial Intelligence (AI).
The AI 's scientific goal is to understand intelligence by building computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. It is concerned with the concepts and methods of symbolic inference, or reasoning, by a computer, and how the knowledge is used to make those inferences will be represented inside the machine. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science which aims at transferring human intellectual skills into machines or programs [21]. The expert system can also be seen as a computer system that can provide information and expert advice on a particular subject
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A rule is a conditional statement that links what is possible according to a particular system [26]. Rule-based systems are used as a way to store and manipulate knowledge to interpret information in a useful way. They are often used in artificial intelligence applications and research. In a rule-based expert system, a knowledge base is normally stored in terms of imposing rules which can be used to reach certain conclusions about a specific term. A rule-based expert system can be seen to be built on an efficient algorithm known as the Rete pattern matching algorithm [27]. A classic example of a rule-based system is the domain-specific expert system that uses rules to make deductions or choices. For example, an expert system such as the eDoctor might help a doctor choose the correct diagnosis based on a cluster of symptoms, or select tactical moves to play a game. Rule-based systems can be used to perform lexical analysis to compile or interpret computer programs, or in natural language processing.…show more content…
Human experts do not retain large volumes of data in their memory.
3. Humans experts do not understand fully, the large volume of data.
4. Humans experts do not have a quick retentive memory, thus; it is slow in recalling data.
5. Humans get tired of working due to the stress of their workload or physical actions.

Notwithstanding the above-mentioned demerits, the human expert also has certain advantages over the expert systems. Human experts have higher forms of reasoning than the expert system. Expert systems do not automatically adapt to an environment. Changes need to be updated in the program before it responds correctly while the human expert automatically adapts to an environment. The human expert needs to test and advise an expert system, especially when the expert system does not recognize a problem or have answers to them.

2.2.6. Disadvantages of expert systems(eDoctor)
Expert systems have certain limitations also which makes them use human decision making most times. They are as follows:
1. Knowledge dependency: an Expert system is knowledge dependent because they depend only on the knowledge stored in them.
2. Lack of fundamental knowledge: The expert system does not have an understanding of the whole system, its causes, and
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