According to Levinson pg.158 (1977), “Justice is primarily a possible, but not a necessary, quality of a social order regulating the mutual relations of men”. Justice can also be termed as the permanent and timeless wish to which every individual his rendered freedom, equality and other basic rights in the state. As a result of its importance, prominent and knowledgeable people have shared their views on justice and what it means and how the state is involved in its administration. The likes of Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke among others have written extensively on the concept of justice. According to Socrates, He saw justice as a way of preserving the state.
In all theories of justice, the reciprocity, necessity, cooperation are the most important concepts defining the idea of justice and they provide me a solid base for rejecting the rationality assumption. The relation between functionings, capabilities and agency seems to be very important in order understand the human motivation that cannot be taught separately from the social relations.If good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable “beings and doings”, it is then important to focus on what people can ‘actually do’, namely their substantive freedoms and more importantly their autonomy degrees and fields that can be thought only in relational terms. In this sense, I find very useful to think with Bourdieu’s concepts in order to understand the framing of what one can ‘actually do’, because although these theories are useful to gain a normative framework, Bourdieu’s analysis are more practical (Calhoun & Wacquant, 2002) and aim to understand the processes and experiences of inequalities. The capabilities (which I find very interesting conceptual and also methodological tool) which makes me think about the concept of habitus, are shaped by not only laws and policies, but also by a set of norms and values that are legitimated and reproduced in discourse, perception and
Most of the assertions given on the concept of love are insightful since all make sense. The assertions bring the assertion that love is a great feeling and its sole objective is to do good not to bring any disruptions. Plato intended to make the readers of his symposium to understand his concept of love. All the explanations given about love from the different speeches given at the symposium attended by the narrator in the story correlate. The main questions that Plato aims at answering are the true definition of love and its role in interpersonal relationships.
However, Plato goes beyond the superficial questions into deep, philosophical thinking. Plato craves wisdom, and his questions of humanity are never ending. Beauty, justice, true philosophy, belief, truth, form of good, and so many more are some of the virtues that he writes about. Plato spends a fair amount of his writing developing the masses opinion on the virtues, and how they contradict what his worldview is. He writes in Symposium, The Republic, Apology, and Phaedo of questions
Introduction The purpose of this assignment is to critically analyse the question what is justice? This work will include looking at justice as a conduct and character which will help me to understand the overall just society and just individual. I will be focusing on Plato’s view on just state and the character of individual he believes is just. I then will continue analyzing the question on justice by looking at justice as a conduct, which will examine the question what is the right thing to do? In order to understand the question, I will be concentrating on two different approaches by Consequentialism and Deontologist.
Goodness plays a huge role in society and, therefore, attracts a lot of attention of various philosophers and other thinkers. Plato is not an exception; his dialogue “Euthyphro” is concentrated all around this theme. It raises the question whether goodness exists at all; but at the same time, it leaves a reader with no answer. However, through Socrates it could be understood that, whatever can be defined precisely is real, that is why he tries to get an exact definition of goodness from Euthyphro in order to know if goodness is real or it is something impermanent, which is merely claimed by human society. Euthyphro made three attempts to give the definition and prove his religious knowledge.
Food is necessary for a happy life, but to seek pleasure in food can cause unrest. Many external goods—such as wealth or housing—follow this pattern, leading Aristotle to suggest finding pleasure only in virtuous actions as they “both please lovers of the fine and are pleasant in their own right” (I.8, 1099a). In this way, Aristotle limits the use of external goods to appeasing human needs. Friendship—another external good—deserves special consideration. It is practiced virtuously in the form of complete friendship, where “they wish goods to each other for each other’s own sake” (VIII.3, 1156b).
Although, there are still some things we, as humans, are given naturally that we cannot just avoid or take away. These are our natural primary goods such as intelligence, health, or strength, and they sometimes do influence our social standing or success in life. This made Rawls’s argument instable, and in order to fix it he came up with the difference principle which states that such inequalities are acceptable, as long as they enhance the wellbeing of the least advantaged. The idea of being ambition-sensitive and endowment-insensitive are key to his overall position on distributive justice. For Rawls, distributive justice means a world
His attempt at making his discovery fruitful, advantageous, and beneficial for us goes with those moralities which are prescribed for the welfare of human beings. In many of his essays, Francis Bacon proceeds with a number of moral precepts and principles. He conveys us to abstract notions- altruism, truthfulness, courtesy, discipline, good manners, politeness, charity etc; and discourages selfish and harmful activities in his writings. His laudable expression about selfless work: charity and goodness are reflected in his Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature. Even, he exalts it in excessiveness rather than knowledge, power, wealth, authority, and other things; for it can never cause any harm but result the best.
Reason and emotion have always played a significant role in humankind’s decision-making. Both of them, however, play different roles in one’s attempt to make a decision. Emotion may be described as subjective, conscious experiences caused primarily by psychophysiological expressions, as defined by New Oxford American Dictionary. This way of knowing might affect human behavior, but, at the same time, may preserve our physical body. As an example, when in danger, our instinct is to escape in order to save our own physique.