Explain The Collision Theory Of Chemical Reaction

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INTRODUCTION There are several chemical entities like atoms(O2,Cl2,N2), molecules(NO2,CO3) and ions() which undergo chemical reaction. Why this chemical reaction occurs and what mechanistic and energetic aspect are involved in it are explained by a theory named the collision theory of chemical reactions. It was developed by British scientist William Lewis and German chemist Max Trautz in around 1916-1918. The collision theory is somewhat based on kinetic theory of gases. THE THEORY The collision theory of chemical reaction states that assuming all chemical reactants to be hard surface, the chemical reaction will take place only when the reactant atoms or molecules undergo collision with each other. But all collisions do not result in reactions. In order to undergo reaction, there must be effective collision. For this effective collision to occur there are some requirements: a) The colliding molecules should collide with sufficient energy which is equal to or greater than the activation energy. It is the minimum energy needed in order to overcome the bonding forces and also the repulsive forces while breaking of old bonds and forming of brand new bonds take place to form the product. b)The reactant molecule should collide in proper orientation. That means their orientation should be in a manner at the time of impact such that it is favorable to the necessary rearrangements of atoms, electrons and bonds. COLLISION FREQUENCY The number of collision that take place per second

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