The alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium because the very thin epithelium will facilitate the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide. 2. Explain how specific muscular contractions lead to quiet breathing. The muscles used for quiet breathing are the external intercostal and the diaphragm. Upon inspiration
The walls of veins are far thinner and the lumen passage much larger. The walls are not muscular and blood is pushed through the vessels by the action of skeletal muscles. Veins carry deoxygenated blood (dark red) to the heart, except for the pulmonary veins which carry oxygenated blood. Blood pressure is very low in the veins, so there are valves in the endothelial layer which prevent the back flow of blood (Tucker, 2015). The structure of capillaries Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body.
Because air always flows from a region of high pressure to an area of lower pressure, it travels in through the body’s conducting airway (nostrils, throat, and trachea) into the alveoli of the lungs. During a resting exhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax, restoring the thoracic (Chest) cavity to its original (smaller) size, and forcing air out of the lungs and into the atmosphere. Whereas breathing is involved with the movement of air into and out of the chest cavity, respiration involves the exchange of gases in the
The pericardium- It has two layers. (i) An outer layer which contains a fibrous covering that wraps around the heart and holds it in place. (ii) An inner layer which has special fluid to lubricate the heart preventing friction from occurring. 2. The myocardium- this contains a strong layer of cardiac muscle
Tension Pneumothorax happens when the air has become trapped between the lungs and the rib cage, which is called the pleural space. As the pleural space fills the lungs it not able to expand which causes the lung to collapse. After the lung collapses the air from one side begins to push to the functioning lung causing the working lung to function harder than usual. The pleural space can obtain oxygen through either a closed pneumothorax or through an open pneumothorax. Tension pneumothorax occurs after a closed pneumothorax or an open pneumothorax has been left untreated.
In the next chamber defoaming occurs and any excess bubbles are removed. Membrane Oxygenators work much like the human lung. There is a thin membrane separating the gas and the blood, which the oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules diffuse across much like in the lung where they diffuse across the wall of the Alveolus and into the Capillaries. There is less of a risk of gas emboli (This is where bubbles cause a blockage in a blood vessel, it is more commonly known as “the bends” and can be lethal) occurring when using a membrane oxygenator as unlike the bubble oxygenator it does not force bubbles into the blood. However the cost of making the membrane oxygenators is a lot higher than bubble oxygenators and membrane oxygenators can only be used in complex open-heart surgery.
Since blood needs to circulate through the heart in a one-way system, special flaps, which are called valves, prevent blood from flowing back in the incorrect way (Ballard, 7). As the right side of the heart pumps oxygen-deprived blood along the pulmonary arteries to the lungs, blood loses carbon dioxide and collects oxygen in the lungs (Rogers, 66). "The pulmonary veins open into the left atrium of the heart," recalls Rogers (66). This is pulmonary circulation. When the left side of the heart pumps blood along the aorta and around every part of the body, it takes oxygen to the tissues where it is needed and collects nutrients and waste products (Rogers, 67).
Larger the ventricles, more is the internal work done to pump out blood by the muscle cells and more is the oxygen consumption. This leads to decrease in the mechanical efficiency of the heart. In various pathophysiological cases like Congestive Heart Failure, ventricular myopathies, ventricular hypertrophies etc. the efficiency of the heart decreases. And the progression of the disease is associated with the efficiency.
Exchange of Air The amount and movement of air and expired gases in and out of the lungs are controlled by expansion and recoil of the lungs. The lungs do not actively expand and recoil themselves. Rather they are acted upon to do so in two ways by downward and upward movement of the diaphragm to lengthen and shorten the chest cavity and (2) by elevation and depression of the ribs to increase and decrease the back to front diameter of the chest cavity (figure given below) Normal quiet breathing is accomplished almost entirely by movement of the diaphragm . During inspiration, contraction of the diaphragm creates a negative pressure (vacuum) in the chest cavity and air is drawn into the lungs. During expiration diaphragm simply relaxes the elastic
The heart is divided into two halves by the septum, and blood in the right and left sides does not mix. The upper chambers or atria receive blood from the veins. The one-way flow of blood through the heart is controlled by valves at two points. The atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid values) are like flags anchored by fibrous cords between the atria and the ventricles. The semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary valve) are cup shaped and are found at the opening of the arteries.
Normally blood entering the right side of the heart stays on the right side (this is low-oxygen blood), and blood on the left side of the heart stays on the left side (this is oxygen-rich blood) which is then pumped to the rest of the body. But in this particular condition when a defect or "hole" is present between the ventricles (or lower chambers), blood from the left side of the heart is forced through the defect to the right side every time the heart beats. It then goes back to the lungs even though it is already rich in oxygen. Because of this, blood that is not yet oxygen-rich can 't get to the lungs. The most common signs and symptoms are trouble eating and gaining weight, breathlessness and easy fatigability in
This results in inefficient pumping of blood from the atria into the ventricles, the lower two chambers. In some cases, people do not suffer any symptoms, but there is still a higher risk of stroke in patients with signs of atrial fibrillation. The common symptoms of atrial fibrillation include
The dilation of the blood vessels will increase the demand for oxygen which then will cause the respiratory system to raise the respiration rate in order to bring in more oxygen which then results to shortness of breath (SOB). Also, the change in the blood vessels will be picked up by the stretch receptors in the heart which will cause the heart to beat with more pressure and to beat faster. Although these common are seen through many Atrial Fibrillation patients. A variety of patients with Atrial Fibrillation doesn’t experience any of the symptoms that are listed above. These patients just tend to show no symptoms of Atrial Fibrillations until they undergo a variety of tests and procedures that is used in order for a patient to be diagnose with Atrial
The non-striated (smooth) muscle cell is spindle-shaped and has one central nucleus. Smooth muscle contracts slowly and rhythmically. Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle, found in the walls of the heart, is also under control of the autonomic nervous system. The cardiac muscle cell has one central nucleus, like smooth muscle, but it also is striated, like skeletal muscle. The cardiac muscle cell is rectangular in shape.
What we have concluded from this question what they are looking for the emphysema patients don’t have a problem of taking air in rather they have a problem of taking the air out. The main problem of the emphysema, they have a lot of mucus, and the alveoli which where the gas exchange takes is impaired. As a result, these patients can’t bring the carbon dioxide out, they become retain the carbon dioxide which makes it so hard for them to breathe