Theoretical Model Of Advertising

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According to Calvert (2008), “children live and grow up in a highly sophisticated marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviors”. This means that, to capture the market and become leaders in that sector, food companies will have to use available advertising tools to market their products in an attempt to influence the purchasing and consumption behavior of people. As such, lots of advertisements on dairy products flood the advertising spaces on television, print media, internet, etc. with the goal of influencing children’s product choices.
2.4 Theoretical Models of Advertising
One of the basis of most forms of communication with the purpose of marketing products or services in the form of advertisements is a mathematical
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It is a shortened form of the title of the book “Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results”. According to the model, successful advertising must involve four levels of understanding by the consumer. Emphasis is placed on the creation of objectives at every level of the communication line. These objectives should be specific and measurable to ensure that the process achieves its goal. In the DAGMAR model, the first level of understanding is an awareness of the existence of the product or organization by the consumer. This is followed by the comprehension of the uses and benefits of the product to the consumer. The consumer is expected to have a mental conviction of buying the product or service at the third level before finally taking action to purchase said product at the fourth level of understanding (See Figure 2.3). The criticisms of the DAGMAR model are similar to that of the AIDA model. Consumers do not naturally follow a strict linear path in the activities that lead them to purchase a product or service. The excessive reliance on measurable strategies by this model is also seen as a disadvantage for it in the sense that it discourages spontaneous approaches (Belch & Belch, 1995; Smith & Taylor, 2002; Mackay, 2005; Karlsson,…show more content…
Like the AIDA and DAGMAR models, this model is based on the Hierarchy of Effects Theory but the difference is that it suggests more steps through which the consumer would have to go through before making a purchase of a product or service. The model indicates that it is impossible for consumers to instantly move from “not being interested in a product or service” to “having a conviction to buy the product or service” in just a single step. The model therefore proposes a six-step approach that an advertisement puts a consumer through. The first is the awareness of the existence of the product or service. The second is knowledge of the uses and benefits of the product or service. This is followed by the third step involving the liking of the product or service. Preference for the particular product or service over others is the fourth step in this model. At the fifth step, the consumer would have developed the conviction to purchase the product and they do that in the final step by taking action to purchase the product or service (See Figure 2.3). The Lavidge and Steiner’s Hierarchy-of-Effects model stresses the importance of satisfying each step involved and also the fact that the advertising process does not always lead to instant responses or purchase from the consumers. It may take some time for it to have the needed effect. Again, the same
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