6. Captain John Smith: famous world traveler, 27 yo, helped save Jamestown, power in Jamestown divided among feuding leaders→ Smith became president fall of 1608, work and order in the community, raids on Indian villages for food/captives= 2nd winter 12 of the 200 died; by the time he had to leave summer 1609 Jamestown showed survival potential E. Reorganization 1. London Co.=Virginia Co.; got new charter that increased its power, expanded area; sold stock (which raised capital) to explorers, then planters who migrate= free passage to Virginia for poor who could serve 7 years 2. Great Fleet (9 vessels w 600 people to Virginia) launched spring 1609 3. The Starving Time (winter of 1609-1610): 1 ship lost @ sea, 1 stranded on Bermuda island for
110 men then started the first successful colony, Jamestown. By the end of the year only 40men survived.Why did so many colonists die in Jamestown? People died in Jamestown because of starvation, disease, and finally their poor relationship with the local Powhatans. Starvation was detrimental to Jamestown. In DOC.B it shows that there was a constant drought from 1609-1610.
The English settled in Jamestown with the goal of striking rich, which they battled to meet in the first twenty years. The Virginia Company received a charter from King James I of England in hope of finding gold and possibly finding another route to the Indies, which also was in search of products and wealth. In fact, the company was only supposed to be in North America for a few years and then be liquidated, yet this stay was much longer. Subsequently, the beginning of Jamestown was dreadful as the colonists were susceptible to many dangers. Forty people died on the trip across the Atlantic in 1606-1607; in another voyage in 1609, the leaders died and their supplies were lost in a shipwreck off the Bermuda.
On either side there was a two story blockhouse with cannons inside. There was a barracks, storehouse, and a hospital built near the walls as well. The garrison stationed at the Fort varied in numbers every year. It started with 600 men but the number was reduced to 100 from 1819 to 1823. After 1823 there were 200 men until 1836.
Although New England and Virginia both bordered the Atlantic and established in the early 1600s, New Englanders lived thirty years longer (30/60 vs. 40/70), and Virginia had a prevalent presence of indentured slaves and servants. America was first settled by English aristocrats, peasants, goldsmiths, jewelers, barbers, and glassblowers who were unfit to hunt game in forests and rivers and died from typhoid, dysentery, and salt poisoning. Under John Smith’s Virginia/London Company-given rule, he established connections with Powhatan, who traded corn (that kept colonists alive) for iron and guns. His departure made some settlers turn to cannibalism. When tobacco was found profitable, the only other activities men engaged in were sleep and drink.
When the English started to colonize the New World, they first tried to settle at a place called Roanoke. “At the end of the first year, all of the surviving colonists get on a supply ship to go back to England.” This might have stemmed from the fact that the colonists turned on the natives that were supplying them with food to survive. John White returned to Roanoke in 1587, this time as governor of the colony. His journal from that expedition documents the increasing hostilities between the Algonquian Indians and the English settlers. In this excerpt, White relates one of the English colonists’ more devastating mistakes: inadvertently attacking and killing some of their own Indian
In 1497 a navigator for England named John Cabot found rich fishing grounds near Newfoundland, which he later claimed for England. English navigators and him continued to search for new ways for a northwest passage to Asia but with no success in the 1600s England began to settle on establishing colonies on the eastern seaboard of North America. In 1607 the English built their first permanent settlement in Jamestown, Virginia. The colony was supposed to bring the British wealth and profit but in the first stages of the colony many colonists died of starvation and disease. The ones that survived only did because of the help of Native Americans.
The documents A and C prove that only 14% died of sickness. there were about 12,000 of us to start with, and only about 1,800- 2500 died from December to June. Therefore, that leaves just about 9,500 of us left. However, with all the people that abandoned the Continental Army leaves us with just about 8,000 of us. In document C which is a passage from a doctor’s diary.
By 1900, almost 30% of major city residents were foreign born. They fled from things such as famine, religious prosecution, or lack of opportunity. The tide of immigration rose to nearly 9 million in the first decade of the 20th. After 1890, 70% of the immigrants to the United States were Slavs and Jews from southern and eastern Europe. Ellis Island was a reception center where refugees, that couldn’t afford first- and second-class cabins, had to check in.
As the Native Americans’ population dwelled from illness, the newly arrived colonist sought livable land. The territory which the Native Americans controlled then became obtainable, as the populations dwindled or completely disappeared. “In costal Massachusetts, an epidemic disease which some scholars recognize as smallpox wiped out the Patuxent people just before the Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth in 1620.” (Watts, 1997, p. 93). The convenience of which was safe shelter and cleared fields ready for planting that was left behind by the Patuxent. If the smallpox epidemic had not wiped out the total population of the Patuxent Indians, the events after the arrival of the Pilgrims to Plymouth just might have been noticeably different from what is written in history books today.
Britain began to expand at the turn of the 16th century, setting off a huge wave of hope and sacrifice. In 1585, a man filled with hope named Sir Walter Raleigh, took his chances in the New World and started one of the first British colonies (“The First English Settlements”). Raleigh named the new settlement Virginia, after the “Virgin Queen”, Elizabeth I (“British Colonial Expansion”). All one hundred men that first settled there ended up leaving, seeing that there was no hope in the land. Raleigh made a second attempt to colonize the New World in 1587 naming it Roanoke, Virginia (“The First English Settlements”).
The first village built by the English was named “James Fort” in honor of their monarch. Within two weeks the Indians, known as the Powhatan’s, found out from the Secotans (North Carolina Native Americans), where most of the recent settlements got “lost”, so they attacked the village. The attack was a failure because the British drew out the Indians with cannons and muskets. After the British drove the Indians away showing more power they also had disadvantages, most of the settlers were trained soldiers and gentries which means they didn’t have enough farmers and farm land to feed all 150 colonists. By the first half of September more than half of the James Fort city (later Jamestown) colonists died, taking the Powhatan’s to pity.