Spinoza's Argument

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This paper argues that the notion of Substance propounded by Baruch Spinoza can be studied and put forward to a panentheistic, expressive structure of Trinities, in which each triad of concepts is unified into a single idiosyncratic divine nature of God. By dissecting the expressionism in Spinoza’s writings, which is at variance with the philosophy of his predecessors (Descartes, Aquinas and Scotus), one can map out his thinking in analytic and synthetic logic to understand his revolutionary rationalist ontology in Ethics that impacted Europe in the seventeenth century.

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. A solemn prayer always begins and ends with this invariably enthralling phrase which, incontrovertibly, reverberates
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The Trinities of Power and Modification re-expresses Substance within itself through production of natura naturata (attributes and modes). Spinoza continues to build his proof of God’s necessary existence to prove that God is causa sui, a self-caused immutable being on Descartes’ absurd argument of quantities of reality. The Cartesian hypothesis claims that if I have the power to create myself, it would be much easier to give myself properties of which I have an idea; and it would be less difficult to preserve myself than to create myself. What can do more can do less. So if it is more difficult to create or preserve a substance than to create its properties, substance would have more reality than the properties themselves. God, consequently, is realer than us, its properties. Spinoza criticizes Descartes for his confusion with what is relative as absolute, just like he takes infinite perfection as absolute infinity. Absolute infinity is the sufficient reason of infinite perfection and power is the sufficient reason of the quantity of reality. The Cartesian axiom declares that there is as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as the objective reality of the idea itself. Spinoza debunks the idea with his axioms of powers: “The power of Thought to think about or to comprehend things, is not greater than the power of Nature to exist and to act.” Spinoza’s emphasis on power in the Short Treatise and the Correction of the Understanding has proven a thorough argument. He expounds his thought in an array of syllogisms, they can be encapsulated in the following: The more reality something has, the more existence it involves. The possible existence Descartes proposes has finite degrees of perfection while necessary existence has infinite perfection. Whatever has the power
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