Zola was one of the first writers who puts forth the idea of talking about contemporary art forms by reflecting upon contemporary circumstances and not, for example, by blaming Aristotle for giving useless theories; this is also the concept that theoreticians of modern tragedy like Arthur Miller, John Gassner, Howard Barkner, George Steiner, Albert Camus and many more have taken up. Many of them suggest changes in nomenclature so that the ideas associated with those names change according to the times. Samuel Beckett, one of the leading playwrights of the 20th Century, also shares his roots with the naturalist ideas. He is one of the best known proponents of the Absurd Theatre as discussed by Martin Esslin in his book titled, The Theatre of the Absurd. However, when he moves from his earlier writing to a later one where the characters become extremely impersonal, he is achieving what Zola suggests in his essay ‘Naturalism in the Theatre’ for
This he expressed in his literary criticism Poetics, where he also detailed his formula for the creation of a tragedy and a tragic hero. For each element of a tragedy, Aristotle provided a description of how the element should be executed in addition to an example from a well-known Greek author in the fourth century BCE. Most often, Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex was mentioned as an example of the ideal execution of an Aristotelian tragedy fit with a tragic hero. And although Oedipus Rex was written long prior to Poetics, its main character, Oedipus, is considered by many to be the epitome of a tragic hero, embodying all six essential elements. First, Oedipus is both virtuous and of noble status; however he does have flaws to prevent him from seeming too perfect.
From Traditional Theatre to Dubious Drama: How Morals and Values Influence Interpretation The play Othello by William Shakespeare was written in a time of discovery and new knowledge that lay the foundation for today’s society. Nonetheless, the traditional morals and values of the era differ vastly from the morals and values nowadays. This can be seen when looking at Othello. At the time when Othello was written, it was read by people who agreed with the morals and values that Shakespeare had incorporated in the play. However, it is still read nowadays, by people with a vastly different world view.
It will also do so in line with the traditions of drama followed by classical dramatists, that is, the dramatists of ancient Greece. This connection to the past further indicates that the play is a work of serious intellectual and moral weight. But, in the prologue we see a different side of Jonson. This side of Jonson is boastful. This play was written in five weeks, says Jonson, all the jokes
The writers made a distinctive between the classics and moderns. The goal of creating modern art was a major concern until the end of the nineteenth century. The new emerging culture would undermine tradition and authority in the hopes of transforming a contemporary society. Modernism was closely related to the idea of the Avant-Garde. It’s a term applied to the artists who are engaged in introducing original and experimental ideas, playing with the forms and techniques to lead its significance in the society and gradually become widely accepted.
"Hubris calls for nemesis, and in one form or another it 's going to get it, not as a punishment from outside but as the completion of a pattern already started," Mary Midgley, a British philosopher (Brainy Quotes). The cycle of hubris has been the same since the time of Homer and Thucydides. It starts with an important figure, either political or mythological, elevating themselves to the level of the Greek gods. Because of this excess pride, the gods then level this figure back to earth with tragedy more often than not. The literary works of that time can be used to show how hubris was a daily part of living in the Greek world.
Virgil imitates many scenes from the Odyssey in his epic, but he always changes in significant ways, so they illustrate his own Roman themes. Both heroes come to the underworld to get a message, although the content is different, and both meet a family in the underworld. The structure seems to have been largely the same in these parts of the story. One of the main differences between the Odyssee and the Aeneid is that the Aeneid can be seen as a patriotic poem or propaganderend while the Odyssey is a poem about individuals and their adventures. Homer emphasizes heroes, not countries, while Virgil was trying to show how Rome was the city as it was then, and the virtues that have had to paint a good Roman citizen or leader.
The story of Romeo and Juliet is a romantic-tragedy literary piece written by William Shakespeare. Summarily, the story behind Romeo and Juliet is about conflicts between two rival families and facing challenges that forbid their love to one another. In the stage play itself, I may say that the entire plot and setting is based from the modernized life style and culture that we have nowadays in our society. It reflects to us Filipinos in such away it influences us to accept things in a new perspective ways like our gestures, mannerism, beliefs, opinions, faith, and many more. One thing that I noticed most in the play that really reflects our cultural setting nowadays, is being liberated and open minded in different aspects in life.
Oedipus’s life is bombarded with challenging decisions that lead to the exposure of his few flaws that every human possesses. Sophocles uses the trilogy of plays to examine the relationship between the Gods and man, the idea of fate, and uses Oedipus as an example of harmful traits as a precaution to readers. In ancient greek culture it was believed that fate was an inevitable path that their life was going along. Many didn’t question or challenge this, letting fate play their lives out like a
The Odyssey is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to The Iliad, the other work ascribed to Homer. The epic raises questions about what an odyssey is for Odysseus and secondary characters who mimic Odysseus's progress throughout the story. In Zimmerman’s play viewers experience a simplified interpretation of Homer’s grand and verbacious text. As viewers experience secondary characters like Agamemnon, Telemachus and Calypso exhibit emotion through actors in Zimmerman’s stage direction.