Zola was one of the first writers who puts forth the idea of talking about contemporary art forms by reflecting upon contemporary circumstances and not, for example, by blaming Aristotle for giving useless theories; this is also the concept that theoreticians of modern tragedy like Arthur Miller, John Gassner, Howard Barkner, George Steiner, Albert Camus and many more have taken up. Many of them suggest changes in nomenclature so that the ideas associated with those names change according to the times. Samuel Beckett, one of the leading playwrights of the 20th Century, also shares his roots with the naturalist ideas. He is one of the best known proponents of the Absurd Theatre as discussed by Martin Esslin in his book titled, The Theatre of the Absurd. However, when he moves from his earlier writing to a later one where the characters become extremely impersonal, he is achieving what Zola suggests in his essay ‘Naturalism in the Theatre’ for
Distortion, doctoring, and the exaggeration of the subject material make realism possible.” (13, Richardson) While the influence of German Expressionism is apparent, filmmakers borrowed heavily from French Poetic realism , as an art movement, emerged from the socio-poltical atmosphere of post-WWI France and gained precedence in the early 1930’s. In poertic-realist films, there is a notable emphasis on what was known as mise-en-scene, translated literally to “put into the scene”. This meant that the importance set-dressing, and lighting were de-emphasized. Poetic realism is supposed to be the recreation of realism, but not inthe same way as documentary film. Therefore, they tend
“A man with too much ambition cannot sleep in peace” as stated by Maxx Mitchell. This statement describes that the people will have some trade off in order to pursue something they have, to give up on something. However, the goal is really the choice It could lead to different consequences either positive or negative. Shakespeare 's play Macbeth is described as a tragic character and his action has been influenced by his wife. Shakespeare believes that ambition, when taken too far leads to our destruction as shown through Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
During the Romantic Era, music was not detached from the emotions of a composer as it was in the Classical Era. A distinctive trait of subjective Romantic music was the use of musical instruments to simulate sounds from the environment (Kauble n.p.). Subjectivity provided listeners with tangible images of the intangible subjects that music touched, such as emotions. Even though emotions were a key factor to music since the beginning of the said art, it was only in the Romantic period that emotions were vividly and explicitly highlighted in pieces. This expression of emotions was possible through different techniques such as chromaticism and modulation (change of key) (Kauble n.p.).
Surrealism started right after the Dada movement ended, although Surrealism wasn’t on negation but rather on positive expression. This art movement had rationalised the European culture and politics in the past that had accompanied in the first World War. A huge influential poet and critic within this movement also known as a big spokesman
Matthias Grünewald was a necessary part of the Renaissance, as he helped to spread many ideas about art and culture such as Systems of Faith, Humanism, and Mannerism to the Northern half of Europe. He mostly painted religious and Biblical scenes, but incorporated certain elements of the Northern Renaissance into his work. He uses lots of symbolism in his artwork and challenged the standards of artwork in his time. Matthias Grunewald was a pivotal piece of the Northern Renaissance as he helped to spread the cultural changes of the Renaissance to Northern Europe. Because of this, he is considered “one of the greatest German painters of his age.” Along with spreading culture, he also created artwork that challenged that of the Renaissance, therefore furthering the cultural development of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Both theatre’s heightened the appeal of drama. Based on the type of play performed, the theatres lifted flags to represent the genre of the production. White represented comedy, light, and puriness, while black stood for tragedy and darkness. Many people were allowed to come to these productions as long as they could afford it. Although they were welcomed, the upper class sat in the gallery for a better view and to be isolated from the commoners.
In the theatre, symbolism was examined to be a response opposed to the plays that personified naturalism and realism at the turn of the 20th Century. The dialogue and style of the theatre in symbolist plays was greatly stylised and non-naturalistic. As theatre is frequently a mix of the visual and performing arts working in harmony, many of the sets and props in symbolist plays were also anti realistic/non-naturalistic and were often used to symbolise emotions or values in society. The Ghost Stonata by August Strindberg and The Wild Duck by Henrik Ibsen are excellent samples of
The use of costumes and make-up has long been considered to be a fundamental part of theatre. While in traditional theatre, both in the East and in the West, costumes and make-up act as signifiers, helping the audience to identify the sort of characters they are watching. Whether the actor is playing a shite (Noh theatre) or young maiden (Peking Opera) or a (Italian traditional theatre - Commedia dell 'arte), there is a specific costumes and make-up designated as an irreplaceable part of characterization. In modern theatres, due to the popularity of Stanislavski’s realistic theatre, elaborated costumes and make-up became less important when it comes to creating theatrical illusion. Instead, costumes and make-up are kept as minimal and as close to reality as possible, which facilitate actors’ movement.
Age of Christopher Marlowe Introduction Christopher Marlowe a great playwright, belongs to Elizabethan or golden age. The work that he produce is based on his education, Christian humanism and his own ability to satirize the world. At this time theatre plays an important role in depicting social and political events of the time. Purpose of Drama in Marlowe’s Age The drama of Christopher Marlowe helps to explain the key features of English renaissance. • The establishment of English self-identity • implementation of the humanistic ideal • The encroachment of English over Latin.