The language of the colonizer became the language of education and culture, and of institutions of governance. Thereby, the colonized were denied “control of their tool and self-definition.” They were disassociated from their history-carried-in-language; and they are disallowed a role in making their own history in the present. There was an “epistemological break” that made reflection on their own lives impossible which lead to the dulling sensibilities and to the loss of creativity. Ngugi Wa Thiong’o makes the call to African writers to begin writing literature in their own languages, and to make sure that literature is connected to their people’s revolutionary struggles for liberation from their (neo) colonial contexts. Echoing Fanon, he claims that this amalgam makes writers most dangerous to colonial powers, when they begin to speak to the
It became very violent. Finally, another way European Imperialism influenced India is by ending the cotton industries in India. They wanted the cotton for their own factories. Many Indians died because of this and their local businesses were harmed, too. Therefore, European Imperialism influenced India in its own
It is also like the blues. And sometimes it is English and African at the same time.’(6) Chinua Achebe in a speech entitled “the African Writer and the English Language” questions: “is it right that a man should abandon his mother tongue for someone else’s. It looks like a dreadful betrayal and produces a guilty feeling” (Achebe 1975:59) Purity of English language is thwarted by the admixture of Hindi, Swahili and other Indian languages. In A House for Mr. Biswas (1961), V.S Naipual presents an intermingled language consisting of creolised English, Hindi and Spanish languages. Brathwaite in his book History of the Voice (1984) calls this type of mixed language ‘National Language’ which does not belong to a particular community.
Faculty of Humanity and Social Sciences Department of General Linguistics Field Methods in Linguistics Adverb in Pashto language (adverb of frequency, adverb of time) Aisha Jumah Rashed Alqaidy 201101805 Dr. Tommi Leung Section 51 Fall 2016 Abstract: This paper examines adverb in different ways. However, Pashto one of the national languages of Afghanistan. Major Pashto speaking cities in Afghanistan are Kandahar (Qandahar), Kabul. There are two major dialects of Pashto: Western Pashto spoken in Afghanistan and in the capital, Kabul, and Eastern Pashto spoken in northeastern Pakistan. Most speakers of Pashto speak these two dialects.
The construction of a specifically national consciousness is dependent upon important cultural activities. In colonialism the colonizing powers always try to colonize the mind, by asserting the superiority of their own culture and the inferiority of those of the natives. In colonialism a particular world view is taught as the best and the most appropriate. They project their own cultural tradition as true and superior and reject the native cultural traditions as false and inferior. The colonizers often assume that the colonized peoples had no meaningful culture prior to the arrival of the colonizers.
It means all about the human. It is about beliefs, attitudes or intentions. d. Characteristics of Culture According to Yvette (2009:105-106), culture has a set of characteristics as follow: 1) Long-term perspective: Culture was developed many years ago and is the accumulation of experience and knowledge. 2) Collection: Culture is a collection of beliefs, values, habits, norms, and traditions. 3) A social phenomenon: Culture appears from human interaction.
Since to master and use a language means also to assume a culture (Fanon, 1952) and, quoting Linton Kwesi Johnson (Parolai, 2015) “Language defines who we are.” West Indians felt committed in elevating their creoles to the status languages representative of their new Afro-Caribbean identities, to languages worthy of being used in literature. Indeed, many authors and artists in general soon realized
In this paper I aim to trace the relation between language and literature. It is very clear from the essays of many 19th and 20th century philosophers and socio-linguists that language influences an individual’s thoughts and which consequently influence his ideas and writings. Raymond William, Bakhtim, Gadamer, Adorno and some other thinkers have invested many years for their lives in proving that language, literature and culture are inter-related and a writer can't write in isolation however objective he pretends to be; this influence of a particular culture and society of his epoch can't be escaped. Stephan Greenblatt's "Culture" also defines culture and its role in literature and literary criticism. Thus there is an unbreakable relation
Currently the language most often taught as a second language around the world. Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "world language", the lingua franca of the modern era and while it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. It is an admitted fact that English has emerged as an International Language of the world. Many nations of the world are striving for learning it as second language. In its role as a global language, English has become one of the most important academic and professional tools.