The transverse process is large and anterior tubercle is absent. Foramen transversarium is relatively small or absent. Structure of typical vertebra (C3 to C7): They have similar anatomical findings. The anterior components of the typical cervical vertebra are: I. The body: It is small and is the major supportive portion of the vertebra.
The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum. The uncinate process, which forms the anterior and medial limitation of the hiatus semilunaris and the ethmoidal infundibulum (respectively), is a thin, crescent shaped, bony leaflet that emerges from the ethmoidal labrynth
It inserts in the linea alba, by an aponeurosis that fuses with the weakly developed dorsal leaf of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique to form the dorsal wall of the sheath of the rectus abdominis. The fibers are directed downward and slightly backward (Bensley and Craigie, 1948). The remaining internal portion of the wall is a smooth serous membrane forming the parietal peritoneum (peritonaeum parietale) (Bensley and Craigie,
The structure of intertebral disc is complex. Nucleus pulposus has a well organized matrix which is laid down by relatively few cells. Nucleus pulposus is a gelatinous structure present in the centre and is contained in the periphery by annulus which is collagenous and cartilaginous, and two cartilaginous endplates cephalad and caudad. Collagen fibers from annulus continue and attach to the surrounding tissues, tying into the vertebral body along its rim, cartilaginous endplates superiorly and inferiorly and anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Bony endplate and cartilaginous endplates were connected by calcified cartilage.
 Microscopically the lesions are unencapsulated and ill defined, characterized by fibrocollagenous tissue, lymphoid tissue and a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate with numerous eosinophils. Eosinophilic abscess, polykaryocytes of Warthin- Finkeldy are sometimes present in germinal
Where medial plantar nerve is associated with flexor hallucis brevis. Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve is associated with adductor halluces muscle and superfacial branch is associated with digiti minimi brevis muscle. Fourth Layer The fourth layer of intrinsic muscles is made with the plantar and dorsal interossei muscles. These two muscles work differently. The plantar interossei made with unipennate morphology and dorsal interossei made with bipennate.
It is thicker proximally, possessing a hook-shaped end (olecranon). Towards the distal end it decreases in diameter and finally, it does not reach the wrist joint at all (radiocarpal joint). The ulna is strongly connected to the humerus and it forms an uniaxial hinge joint in the elbow with flexion-extension range of motion (). The middle third of the ulna is critical with regard to the intra-osseal vascular supply of the ulnar shaft (). The ulna is close to being straight ().
DEFINITION OF NASAL POLYP. The word Polyp is originally Greek and has undergone Latinization and means Polypous that is many footed.35 The term Polyp mentions to the macroscopic appearance of a pedicled tissue arising from a mucosal surface and projecting into lumen or cavity.26 Hence Nasal polyps are defined as pearly white painless prolapsed pedunculated parts of nasal mucosa.35 PATHOLOGY OF NASAL POLYPS. Macroscopically Polyps have an edematous smooth and shiny appearance with a soft consistency as compared with the surrounding non polypoidal mucosa. The cut surface is usually pale and edematous with a translucent appearance. Polyps are generally mobile and are usually bilateral.
1.1 Physiological Background: 1.1.1 Organization of the testis: The human testes are two organs of ellipsoids shape with diameters of about 2.5 × 4 cm(Foresta et Al., 2012).Engulfed by a capsule (tunica albuginea) of strong connective tissue. Thin septula testis divide the parenchyma of the testis into about 370 conical lobules(Tomova et al., 2010)The lobules consist of the seminiferous tubules and intertubular tissue, containing groups of endocrine Leydig cells and additional cellular elements (Sanjeev et al.,20005),The seminiferous tubules are coiled loops their both ends open in to the spaces of the rete testis.The fluid secreted by the seminiferous tubules is collected in the rete testis and delivered to the ductal system of the epididymis.The
The second category describes the atypical type of EFD (EFD-A) as the bone lacks the normal modeling of the di-metaphyseal and an unusual appearance of the trabecular bone. This form of EFD is commonly seen in dysosteosclerosis and osteopetrosis. Lastly, the third category of EFD describes the the deformity as having a marrow expansion (EFD-ME) where the bone marrow becomes packed with blood cells (hyperplasia) or infiltrated with foreign or abnormal tissue which is commonly seen in Gaucher’s disease. The most common way to diagnosis Erlenmeyer’s flask deformity is by use of radiography an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation, such as X-rays, to look at an internal structure of an object with varying density (ie., the human body).
One of the most common disease that affects the respiratory system is asthma. Asthma is a long duration disease that diminishes the airways of your lungs. It makes you have further difficulty breathing. The cause of the disease is not known. Researchers consider that some of the causes for asthma could be inherited or the environment could also have been something that affects your lungs and made it hard for you to breathe.
The middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, and stapes. The ossicles were given their Latin names for their distinctive shapes; they are also referred to as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, respectively. 6. Describe the factors that contribute to sound localization. Sound localization refers to a listener 's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance.