Essay On External Validation

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External validation seems to be a fairly straightforward concept, one in which the average human being seeks validation from others in most aspects of life. However, what adds complexity to this mental model is the mere fact of how unaware we have become as a society of the role external validation has come to play in our lives, through not only social media but the overall consumption of mass media. By juxtaposing and analyzing the works of Habermas, Shudson, and Silverstone we can come to see the roles the public sphere and the evolution of mass media have come to play in fostering this external validation we seek as individuals.
In his book Habermas and the Public Sphere, Habermas discusses the origins of the public sphere dating back
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Shudson sees conversation as un-democratic due to the limited accessibility provided in group settings for everyone to freely participate and partake in conversation. He strongly advocates and offers as an alternative smaller conversation since in large gatherings he feels as though rules of engagement must be implemented to insure participation. Shudson also shuts down Habermas’s fascination with clubs and coffee houses by stating, “Sociable talk takes place among social equals, not necessarily intimates, in clubs and coffee houses. Where democratic conversation takes place is more difficult to pin down” (Shudson 306). Thus, for Shudson democratic conversation does not lie in the mere gathering of intellectuals but rather it is fostered “in settings where talk is bound to be uncomfortable” (Shudson 306). These feelings of uneasiness and discomfort are the principle reasons why we are taught from an early age to avoid topics such as politics and religion due to the risk of offending someone else point of view yet Shudson may argue this hindrance has yielded a lack of public democratic
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