Introductory Questions Define SPE and explain the role of each of the steps used to prepare the SPE cartridge for the isolation of the analyte. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is an extraction method that uses a liquid and solid phase to isolate a single analyte or a specific type of analyte from a solution. It is usually used to clean up a sample before using a chromatographic or other analytical method to quantify the amount of analyte(s) in the sample.
Electron microscopes are scientific microscopes which utilizes a beam of accelerated electrons to get a detailed image of thin sections of a sample. There are two different types of the electron microscope, the first being a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). While both the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope work under the same concept, the SEM focuses on the samples surface and composition whilst the TEM will give information about the sample’s internal composition. The electron microscope was invented by electrical engineer Max Knoll and German physicist Ernst Ruska whose goal was to overcome the barrier of higher resolution
Surface mining method are classified into the following two classes:  • Mechanical • Aqueous As the deposit which is discussed in this thesis will be extracted by methods which exist in mechanical class, thus the aqueous class is discussed briefly and methods of the mechanical class are studied in detail. Aqueous class is dependent on water, in the manner that water is used for mining and processing of mineral through jetting, slurring, and dissolving.  Aqueous class is divided into two subclasses which are indicated in the following:  • Placer • Solution The methods which are used in placer subclass is Hydraulicking and Dredging, and the methods which are related to solution subclass is Borehole mining and Leaching. The aqueous
Mass spectrometry methods provide quantitative analysis with a combination of selectivity and sensitivity and the possibility to find metabolites. Unlike NMR, where sample preparation requirements are minimal, in mass spectrometry there is a requisite for the sample preparation step. A wide range of instrumental and technical variants are currently available for MS spectrometry. These variants are mainly characterized by different ionization and mass selection methods (El-Aneed et al., 2009). Compounds are often ionized and usually undergo separation to reduce the high complexity of the sample.
Sensors New technologies are a valuable instrument to ease the disabled persons. The use of new technology developed devices for disabled persons. Sensor is the one of the best technology to improve the life of disabled persons. A sensor is a device, produced by sensitive cells, to transforms physical or chemical magnitudes in useful signals to measure or control system. The instrumentation variables depend on the type of the sensor and they can temperature, distance, acceleration, propensity, movement, nearby atmosphere etc.
2.3 Extraction of Essential Oils Essential oils are used in various applications from perfumery, food and cosmetic industry to pharmaceuticals, thus there should be regular increase in the quality of the oil yielded. Hydrodistillation is the most frequently used technique in industrial process to ex-tract essential oils, where 3 types are distinguished: the water distillation, direct steam distillation and the steam and water distillation. Water and steam exposure protect the plant constituents from decomposition since they expose it to lower temperatures. Distillation methods involve the evaporation and subsequent con-densation of liquids to produce, refine and concentrate essential oils. Citrus essential oil extraction such as orange and
In the Part III of the proposed thesis, Protic ionic liquid catalyzed substrate tuned green synthesis of 1,2-disubstituted and 2-substituted benzimidazoles with outstanding selectivity using Grindstone chemistry under solvent free condition will be described. Part IV of the thesis will describe about the cleavage of acetals and ketals through the activation of 1, 3-dioxolane by protic ionic liquid in aqueous media with extraordinary selectivity and tolerance of many functional groups. This novel method was adopted for the preparation of some starting materials required for the synthesis of imidazoles and benzimidazoles described in Part II and Part
Biomedical Sensors- Advancing Medical and Biotechnology Introduction to Sensors Sensors are regarded as small, tiny and intelligent devices that are used to measure physical variable like Temperature, Humidity, Gas, Velocity, Flow Rate, pressure and many others. According to American National Standards Institute, “A Sensor is defined as device which provides a usable output in response to a specified measure.” A Sensor acquires a physical quantity and converts it into a signal suitable for processing e.g. Optical, Electrical, Mechanical. In today’s world, the words “Sensor” and “Transducer” are used in abundance especially in the description of measurement systems. The word “Sensor” is derived from entire meaning ‘to perceive’ and “Transducer”