Extraction And Synthesis Essay

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Extraction is the process of removal or isolation of soluble substances from an insoluble residue either solid or liquid. Extraction can be done by treatment with appropriate solvents. There are various types of extraction method can be used in the pharmaceutical analysis field. The different types of extraction methods will be discussed below.
Types of extraction methods:
1. Solid phase extraction (SPE)
2. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME)
3. Micro extraction by packed solid (MEPS)
4. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)
5. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)
6. Membrane filtration (MF)
A. Solid phase extraction (SPE)
Solid phase extraction is a reversible interaction between the compounds of interest with the surface of stationary phase. Solid phase extraction is based on the affinity of solutes to the stationary sorbent phase.
Application of SPE
1) To detect the trace elements in the waste water.
2) To screen the benzodiazepines that present in the urine.
3) To determine the lysergic acid diethylamide that present in the blood, plasma or serum.


There are 4 process involved in SPE which are conditioning, loading, washing and eluting as well.
Step1. Conditioning
The cartridge is first conditioned with a
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It is a technique that excludes the use of solvent. SPME comprise of a fiber that are coated with either a liquid, solid or solid along with liquid. This coated fiber is use to concentrate the various kind of analytes from distinct media. After the extraction process, the targeted analytes can be separated and quantified by introducing the fibers into the analytical instrument. The instruments used can be Mass Spectrometry or Gas chromatography. Throughout the transferring process, a syringe-like handling device will help to protect the samples. Also, the handling device can used to assure the fiber when it is

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