Extreme Nationalism In Spain

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The Basque Nation of Spain is infamous for it’s strong and radical desire to be an independent region and it’s individualistic and extreme nationalism. Many of these beliefs towards the Basque Region are commonly associated with, and stem from the terrorist organization Euskadi ta Askatasuna, translated to Basque Country and Freedom, and abbreviated as ETA. ETA’s main objective is to make the Basque Region a free and independent nation from Spain. From their formation in 1959, during the rule of Franco, to their final and permanent lasting cease-fire in January 2011, ETA has taken extreme measures to promote their cause, as a result of legislative actions, and reactions to the terrorist organization. As Spain developed from a dictatorship into…show more content…
“The first attacks carried out in the name of ETA were explosions in the towns of Bilbao, Vitoria and Santander in 1959. Its most remarkable feat was the partly successful attempt, on 18 July 1961, to derail a train carrying Franco’s supporters on their way to San Sebastián. The partial derailment of the train did not result in any deaths but the police took advantage of the sabotage to arrest and torture a number of suspects.” [3] At this point, ETA still maintained some support from the Basque society, although they were a terrorist organization, the public opinion of the group was not entirely negative, due to the huge resentment towards Franco. ETA began to focus on making stronger attacks towards the last decade when Franco was in power, which enforced that they were on a mission to go against him, and Franco was able to see that they worked to oppose and eliminate him. In 1968, ETA committed its first murder when they killed a secret police officer in front of his wife and daughter in San Sebastian. “When the police commissioner, Melitón Manzanas, was about to enter his house on the afternoon of August 2, he was shot dead. During a ‘state of emergency, scores of suspected ETA sympathizers were rounded up, illegally detained, beaten and…show more content…
The Spanish Constitutional Referendum in 1978 had an overwhelming majority of support among the Spanish population. However, “the important and enduring flaw in the constitutional process was the absence of the Basque nationalist in the form of their majority party, the moderate PNV. PNV extended to the rejection of all of their suggested amendments to the constitutional text, leading eventually to their abandonment of the Constitution Committee and, to this day, their ability to claim no involvement in or necessary allegiance to the document”. [5] As imagined, the Basque voter turn out was extremely low, and only less than 50% participated in the
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