Extrinsic Elements In Literature

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2.1.2.1 Exposition Exposition is the starting point of the story. It provides the condition and mood existing at the beginning, and thus the setting is identified. Besides that, the background information of the characters alongside their positions and relationships to one another are also established.

2.1.2.2 Complication or Conflict Conflict is the challenge and problem part of the story. It is the main problem that gives a predicament and tension in the beginning. It happens when there is a clash between the protagonist and antagonist. The conflict can be internal or external. The internal conflict refers to the characters who is experiencing the clash, while the external conflict refers to a clash between two sides. A complication happens
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The theme links all aspects of the literary work with one another and is basically the main subject. It can also be an enduring motive or pattern throughout the literary work and provide a certain insight into the story. Simply put, a story’s theme is its idea or point formulated as a generalization (DiYanni, 2000, 86).

2.2 Extrinsic Elements Extrinsic elements are those things that are outside of the intrinsic elements and literature. It usually becomes a causal explanation for some analysis of the literary work and thus influence the story. The extrinsic elements are the elements giving the influence on intrinsic or basic construction of fairy tale. Based on this, the extrinsic elements that connects with the novel are the three theories developed by experts which are Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Erik Erikson.

2.2.1 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Criticism Sigmund Freud was a neurologist and is considered to be the father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. He was born on May 6, 1856 in Moravia, the Austrian Empire. In 1881, he was qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna. Freud also was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in
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He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. He was born on June 15, 1902 in Germany. He served as a professor at prominent institutions such as Harvard and Yale even though lacked even a bachelor’s degree. Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies an organized structure of eight stages, in which a normal developing individual should pass through from infancy to maturity. All of the stages are present at birth but only begin to unfold according to both a natural scheme and one’s ecological and cultural upbringing.

2.2.3.1 Basic Trust Vs. Mistrust (0-1 Years) This first stage virtues is hope and covers the period of infancy. It is multi faceted and has strong components. It depends on the quality of the maternal relationship. The baby develops a sense of trust if the mother carries out and reflects their inner perceptions of trustworthiness on the child, hence forms a basis in the child for a sense of identity. Failure to develop this trust will result in a feeling of fear and a sense that the world is inconsistent and
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