It is unlikely that social consequences of false memories can be avoided. Elizabeth Loftus was intrigued to study false memories, and is perhaps personally responsible for subsequent developments throughout the history of false memories. Some of this history addresses various theories aimed at isolating how or why false memories occur. These include Source Monitoring Framework, Activation Monitoring Theory, Fuzzy Trace Theory, and strategies for persuasion which can lead to the development of false memory. Such persuasion leads to the present discussion concerning how persuasion in the judicial system has created false confessions and wrongful eyewitness testimonies, due to the Misinformation Effect.
Conclusion The present essay aimed to analyse how false memories can positively affect identity. This can be done by understanding that their first function is to preserve individual identity. In addition, scientists are starting to exploit their specificity by influencing what people believe about themselves. Because of the disasters they can cause, it was important to understand that our memories are not always reliable. But it becomes clear that false memories have resources that were previously unknown.
First, this ideology that hypnosis leads participants to have heightened confidence levels in their memory recall can result in a testimony that can sway a jury and possibly lead to the false incarceration of an innocent person. Second, the research that was conducted also concludes that hypnosis does not improve memory; people in a hypnotic state are as likely to incorporate irrelevant information into their testimonies as regular people are. This makes the recall elicited under hypnosis as reliable as the memory produced regularly. Accuracy levels among the memories recalled in the studies signify that memories recalled under hypnosis are no more accurate than the memories of a regular eye-witness. With regards to the case, the testimony provided by Mrs. Walter should be deemed inadmissible because any information provided to the court through the use of hypnosis should be disregarded, as it does not add any value to the memory Mrs. Walter is trying to
Hovland’s studies compared credible and non-credible sources using various models of persuasive messages to test if the sources seen as credible caused opinion changes in the message receivers more than the non-credible sources (Hovland, 1952). Hovland designed his experimental studies by presenting identical communication to two groups. One group was presented as trustworthy, and the other group was presented with a less trustworthy source. The source presented topics of current interest to the individuals, and even though some sources were presented as trustworthy and others were presented as untrustworthy some of the information given was inaccurate or false. Questionnaires were then administrated, and data was collected on how well the participant trusted the source and if their opinion changed.
False memories can be created unintentionally by the unconscious: or another way to explain how a memory can be constructed in therapy and believed to be truly recovered, one can look to false memory theories of “associative activation” and “thematic consistency” (Gallo, 2006, p. 51-53). Associative activation “refers to the activation of concepts stored in semantic memory due to the processing of other concepts found at the same conceptual level” (Gallo, 2006, p. 51); in other words, one scenario activates another scenario. According to this theory, if the activation of a concept is strong enough it becomes believable, and furthermore, one can begin to believe it happened to them. That is, simple association can trigger a false memory. An
Here the author should have probably listed a psychological reason that explains why humans react either positively or negatively. This might have increased the strength and acceptability of his argument. In addition, most of the arguments the author uses are inductive arguments rather than deductive arguments. This means that he relies more on probability and giving examples than on providing reasons. Deductive arguments are arguably stronger than inductive
May and Holton also empirical methods in a pursuit to answer a conceptual question: what is meant by weakness of will? From the experiments they conducted, subjects agreed weakness of will is displayed in scenarios when both types of violations were present, they had a neutral response when only one of the violations were present and disagreed when neither were present. They then incorporated a moral valence aspect to test whether this affects subject’s attributions of weakness of will. Moral valence is the “good”-ness or “bad”-ness of a situation, for example, someone succumbing to go drunkenly bully people (bad) or watch a movie (good). If the vignette resulted with the protagonist succumbing to perform a negative valence, subjects would agree they demonstrated weakness of will.
Further, the traumatic experience does not have to be the root cause of the memory blockage, the abuser themselves can motivate repression. “Factors related to betrayal by a close caregiver probably contribute to the social utility of forgetting childhood abuse…explicit threats and demands for silence from the abuser (“if you tell I’ll kill you or “I’ll kill your mother”) would hypothetically increase the survival advantages of forgetting the betrayal in order to maintain critical attachment bonds and would thus increase the probably of amnesia” (Freyd, 322). Since the abuser
The results of Experiment 1 are consistent with these predictions: Individuals in negative moods were significantly less likely to show false memory effects than those in positive moods or those whose mood was not manipulated. Experiment 2 introduced inclusion instructions to investigate whether moods had their effects on encoding or retrieval. Next, the constructive nature of memory means the mind constructs memories based on a number of sources of information. Some of the characteristics of memory reflect it is when the people report as memories are constructed by the person based on what actually happened plus additional factors, such as the person’s knowledge, experience and expectations. There are also some of the factors can affect
Instrumental learning is a way of learning, which occurs through reinforcements and punishments. Classical theories of instrumental learning emphasized the relationship between stimulus and response (Thorndike, 1911). Classical theories however failed to account for the individual’s current needs and motivation. Instrumental learning can be controlled by a goal-directed or a habitual system (Staddon and Cerutti, 2003). In the initial learnings, instrumental actions are goal-directed, but as the learning progresses, actions become more habitual, stimulus driven and independent of the action-outcome contingency (Dickinson, 1985).
As well a lay person may believe a false eyewitness, believing they would not change what exactly they saw. A follow up study to help with these limitations would be a study that would have a more diverse selection of people. They would be administered one of the three scenarios as well. While the people are viewing the scenario, they will also be taking an exam to depict if they are racist or not or have feelings towards people that are different from them. In closing, both discredited eyewitnesses and jurors can determine and outcome of a trial, resulting in a life changing decision for the person that is accused.
In the article,”Does Talking About Emotions Influence Eyewitness Memory?,” it discusses the way emotions can affect the memory of a witness of a crime. Having two witnesses of the same crime can result in different memories due to the person’s way of thinking. The different ways that you ask questions can affect the results of how the witness can recall a crime. The authors uses hypotheses experiments to come to an conclusion if emotions influence eyewitnesses memory. They show participants emotional video clips and interview them alone and as a group to see if their stories change.