High ego strength forms healthy personalities whilst low ego strength shapes maladaptive personalities. Freud’s theory faced controversy, specifically in the research methods and area of focus. This essay first elaborates Freud’s perception of personality, followed by evaluation of Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. In the Structural Model, Freud divided human mind into three theoretical constructs: pleasure-seeking id, realistic ego and moralistic superego; each agency has distinct roles, components and principles (Carducci, 2009). Furthermore, agencies operate at different levels of awareness.
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. The terms introversion and extraversion were first popularized by Carl Jung, although both the popular understanding and psychological age differ from his original intent. Extraversion tends to be manifested in outgoing, talkative, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reserved and solitary behavior. Extraversion and introversion are typically viewed as a single continuum. Thus, to be high on one it is necessary to be low on the other.
Thus, it is possible to anticipate an individual’s behavior in a given situation by knowledge of his/her personality. However, some psychologists like Mischel (1969) questioned the consistency of personality traits. He claimed that personality traits are not sufficient predictors of behavior in different situations. In spite of some disagreements on the consistency of behaviors and the capability of personality traits to determine them, it is generally accepted that traits are indicators of behavior. Farahani (1998) believes that four principles make up the cornerstones of trait theory of personality: 1) certain definite attributes or traits make up personality.
If an individual acts in a heroic manner, society would point to traits that would show a predisposition towards altruism. The situational view, in contrast, asks about the conditions that could be contributing to certain behaviors, the circumstances that are involved in generating actions, and to what extent an individual’s actions can be traced to factors that are outside the actor. This latter view is the basis for Zimbardo’s work as he expands the focus from dispositional views of the world to how an individual’s character has the ability to transform via powerful situational forces. Humans and situations share a dynamic interaction – our demeanors and behaviors change depending on the people we are surrounded by, as well as the environment that we are
Introduction Does someone really use psychological defense mechanisms to protect their ego, the side that is not fully conscious yet is aware of reality? Some people may use Sigmund Freud’s defense mechanisms more than others, but they may be used for many different reasons. They could be trying to fit into society or simply living their day to day life while protecting their ego at the same time. At one point in everyone’s life, they will have a feeling that is similar to one of these ways to protect themselves. This could be in an action of blaming others simply so they don’t get into trouble themselves, trying to find reasons to avoid a situation, possibly in school or simply out in public and maybe even trying to change their identity simply
Some psychologists have even argued that personality does not exist; that people change behaviour over time and across various situations. The counter-argument to this is that individuals will adapt their behaviour to fit the situation, and generally demonstrate some pare of their personality in a given situation (Coaley, 2014). However, personality is a broad and rather ambiguous concept, meaning that is it difficult to define succinctly; and yet how we define it plays a crucial part in how we investigate it. Eysenck’s theory of personality concluded that there were 3 dimensions: extraverted-introverted, neuroticism-stability, psychoticism-socialisation (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964). With the broadening field of psychometrics, the Eysencks were the first to make their approach more quantifiable and legitimate than others had been in the past.
Carl Jung thought that some parts in unconscious are much bigger then sexual or aggressive emotions. In his writings about the person he explains that individuals are motivated by some unexplainable forces and forms that comes from the DNA. He believes that genetic code has a soul material that explains people’s aspiration to creative progressiveness and physical perfection. Jung’s theory about a psychological behavior helps us to understand the nature of people’s emotions, their relationship with he nature etc. it means the social behavior.
It comprises that part of the personality, mainly unconscious which includes the individual 's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the conscience that criticises and prohibits ones drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions (3). This theory is the measure of our biological aggressive and pleasure-seeking drives vs. our socialized internal control over those drives. Freud asserts the notion that, “Human beings are motivated, even driven by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware”. “The Cask of the Amontillado”, can be viewed through this lens because it deals with human behaviour when prompted to make dire decisions. Furthermore Montresor 's bid for revenge can be showcased with this school of thought thus all three fundamental structures of the human mind must be profiled.
Additionally, specific patterns and biases an individual uses when forming impressions based on a limited amount of initial information about an unfamiliar person. While on the other hand, there are parts of the impression formation process that are context dependent, individuals also tend to exhibit certain tendencies in forming impressions variety of situations. There is not one single implicit personality theory used, but different approaches the task of impression formation in his or her own unique way. Moreover, there are some components of implicit personality theories that are consistent across individuals, or within groups of similar individuals. These components are of particular interest to social psychologists because they have the potential to give insight into what impression one person will form of another (Millon, 2003).
In his theory of dissociation he stated that: “The nature of conscious activity, especially partial automatism in which a part of one's personality is split off from self-awareness and follows an autonomous subconscious development”. Janet’s theory of the subconscious can be compared to Freud’s theory which is: “the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect”. Although there’re differences in the two theories, the main idea still remains, that the subconscious mind comprises thoughts inaccessible to the consciousness but to some extent, affect our behaviours personalities. Carl Jung (1953) also arrived at the same theory as Freud regarding the subconscious mind . However, there is a major difference between Jung and Freud’s model of the unconsciousness.
Freud wrote a book called “Group Psychology & the Analysis of the Ego” where he argues and investigate group behavior is psychoanalysis. His book arises many questions about groups, such as how do groups influence people’s behaviors? Or how much is one willing to do to fit into one’s group? In Freud book “Group Psychology & the Analysis of the Ego”, he talks a lot about Group Psychology and conformity. Conformity refers
Briefly, attachment theory is one of the influential developmental concept that underlines the human behavior and interaction and in addition to psychopathology and psychotherapy (Mickelson et al., 1997). It has been argued that attachment theory can contribute our understanding of psychosis development and maintenance (Liotti &Gumley, 2009). Psychosocial models of psychosis took attachment theory as their reference to examine psychosis development (Read & Gumley, 2010). Evidence from Dozier (1990) and Dozier et al. (1991) underlined that psychosis patients significantly had high levels of insecure attachment when compared to non psychotic patients.