AN ABSTRACT ON MESOCHRONOUS PIPELINING PARALLEL COMPUTING is a form of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved at the same time. There are many alternatives to achieve parallel computing, namely 1. Parallel processing: In computers, parallel processing is the processing of program instructions by dividing them among multiple processors with the objective of running a program in less time. In the earliest computers, only one program ran at a time. With single-CPU, single-core computers, it is possible to perform parallel processing by connecting the computers in a network.
2.1 Microcontroller A micro-controller is computer on a single integrated circuit-containing a processor core, memory, and programmable peripherals. It is a compact microcomputer, designed to control the operation of embedded electronic systems. The important part of micro-controller is its processor (just like all computers have) and memory, and some input or output pins that user can control. Working Microcontroller has pins to connect input device in order to get the input and output pins for controlling output devices (such as LED or LCD Display) to exhibit the final process. Most programmable microcontrollers that are used today are embedded in other consumer products or machinery including phones, peripherals,
The first stage of most multipliers involves generating the partial products which is nothing but an array of AND gates. An n-bit by n-nit multiplier requires n2 AND gates for partial product generation. Many researchers are going on to design multipliers in different fields or in different domain, which provide advantage like - low power consumption ,high speed of design and less area or even combination of them in one multiplier . The multiplication method is “add and shift” algorithm. In digital electronic different multiplier design are present .In the arithmetic design multiplier have important role multiplier can be one bit two bit and three bit and many more .In digital circuit multiplier are used for airtimatic operation .In the digital circuit number are present in 0 and 1 combination.
Device drivers control is a particular device that is attached to the computer. While the operating systems usually collects services for other systems managing their resources. Utilities are programs that guide their users on how to use and maintain the computers. Other than these major software, there are other major ones such as web applications, Java Script, server software, plugins, microcode and desktop applications. Software’s can be off-the-shelf softwares or those that build according to the user’s preference.
w.britannica.com/technology/multiprocessing Multiprocessing, in computing, a mode of operation in which two or more processors in a computer simultaneously process two or more different portions of the same program (set of instructions). Multiprocessing is typically carried out by two or more microprocessors, each of which is in effect a central processing unit (CPU) on a single tiny chip. Supercomputers typically combine thousands of such microprocessors to interpret and execute instructions. The primary advantage of a multiprocessor computer is speed, and thus the ability to manage larger amounts of information. Because each processor in such a system is assigned to perform a specific function, it can perform its task, pass the instruction set on to the next processor, and begin working on a new set of instructions.
When speaking of Computer memory, one must take into account features like: location, capacity, transfer units, access methods, enforcement, physical, physical characteristics and organization. The memory devices are located in the processor registers in the main memory of the internal memory and secondary memory from external memory. Its capacity is measured according to the memory cell, word size and the number of words. A memory cell is an electric circuit used to store a bit. The natural unit of memory organization is known as word size.
Hardware is the components of computer that are physical, touchable pieces or equipment. Commonly, the term hardware is referring to machinery. This hardware is also includes the computer itself which are often referring to computer processing unit (CPU) and all of supported equipment. Computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory which are accept data, processing data according to specific rules, produce results and stored the result for future use (Gary B. Shelly, Misty E. Vermaat, Jeffrey J. Quasney, Susan L. Sebok and Steven M. Freund, 2012). Furthermore, hardware has divided into two categories which are internal hardware and external hardware.
From an experimental point of view, a microcontroller is an electronic device capable of performing a predefined task on an input signal and output the altered signal from one of its ports. The mentioned “predefined” task is programmed into the read only memory of the microcontroller through an integrated development environment (IDE). The emphasis of this lab and all the consequent labs will be on how to program using an IDE so that the desired output signal will have enough information to make other electronic devices (LEDs, diodes, motors, etc.) to behave in a particular desired way. Microcontrollers are small computers designed to do real time controls.
Industries uses programmable logic controller to see all the inputs & give decesions depending on their logic or programming which helps to turn off or on its output and also to control various processes and it various machinery . A programmable logic controller ie plc uses a programmable memory that is used to store to various instructions internally and which in turn is used to implement functions like logic timing, analog and digital output input modules , arthimatic, sequencing counting and various machines processes. In easy words it is a digitally operating apparatus. Some programmable logic controller use timers while some have constant control in short programmable logic controller is based on boolean logic . since these devices used to control or operate on many processses and on equipments used witin a facility as they are computer based .
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS INTRODUCTION 1.Direct Memory Access is an input / output technique which provides direct access to the memory while the microprocessor is disabled temporarily. 2. The transfer of data between memory and input/ output devices is an important aspect of governing the performance of computer system. 3. Data Memory Access allow input/ output devices to send or receive data directly to or from main memory by bypassing the CPU to speed up memory operations.