TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Experiment 8: Identification of metal ions and inorganic compounds in aqueous solution Introduction: Qualitative analysis is the identification a sample's component(s). Unlike a quantitative analysis, we are not concerned with the amount of a substance present in a sample but only with its identity. In this exercise we will focus on identifying the cations and anions that make up ionic compounds, both solid and in solution. Ideally there would be chemical tests that could be used to identify individual ions without interference by any other ions. Unfortunately, there are often complications.
The Wittig reaction is valuable reaction. It has unique properties that allows for a carbon=carbon double bond to form from where a C=O double bond used to be located. Creating additional C=C double bonds is valuable due to its use in synthesis. The Wittig reaction will allow the synthesis of Stilbene (E and Z) from a Benzaldehyde (Ketcha, 141).
The solubility of CVD-ILs with CA and TA is less than CVD. This observation could be related with pH of final solution. pHs of final solution for CVD-ILs in HCl 0.2 M are 2.5-3 for IL-CA and IL-TA. According to the pKa of CA and TA (Table 1), they are partially in non-ionized form and synthesized ionic liquid cannot increase the CVD’s solubility against of the ionic liquid’s solubility in acetate buffer solution.
Ionization refers to the production of gas phase ions suitable for resolution in the mass analyser or mass filter. There are a many on sources available, each has advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. For example, Electron Ionization (EI) gives a high degree of fragmentation, yielding highly detailed mass spectra which when skilfully analyzed can provide important information about structural elucidation/characterization and facilitate identification of unknown compounds by comparison to mass spectral libraries. However, EI is not suitable for coupling to High-performance liquid chromatography, since at atmospheric pressure, the filaments used to generate electrons burn out rapidly. Thus EI is coupled predominantly with Gas Chromatography, where the entire system is under high
Tert-butyl-chloride would be expected to never react in a SN2 reaction, as it is so unreactive under these conditions. For each of the molecules used in this experiment (except tert-butyl-chloride), the nucleophile, iodine, would attack the electrophilic carbon bonded to the leaving group, chloride or bromide. That leaving group would then take the
This reaction was able to happen during designated lab time due to the fact that a phenol was used. Phenols or more reactive than unsubstitued benzene rings due to the presence of the alcohol on the benzene ring. The alcohol is considered an activating group due to the oxygen’s ability to donate its lone pairs into the benzene ring thus giving it more electrons and thus making it more nucleophilic and more likely to react with the introduced electrophilic species. As aforementioned, there are various products formed in this reaction the two major products formed though are the ortho and para products. It is debatable which product is more prominent due to steric reasons and the capability of each product to conduct in hydrogen bonding.
HCl is a polar molecule therefore it wouldn’t be soluble in diethyl ether, a nonpolar solvent. Based on solubilities, HCl is an inorganic compound that would rather be in the aqueous layer, while the diethyl ether, an organic compound would rather be in the organic layer. The upper layer consists of the organic solvent and organic products, which are the ether solution with benzoic acid and Hydrogen. The bottom layer consists of the aqueous solution and inorganic products, ethyl-4-aminobenzoate and . The ether solution is the upper layer because it is less dense than water.
Arsenate can replace inorganic phosphate in step 6 of glycolysis that produces 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate instead of glyceraldehyde 3-phospahte. This yields 1-arseno-3-phosphoglycerate instead, which is unstable and quickly hydrolyzes, forming the next intermediate in the pathway, 3-phosphoglycerate. This is the same product that is normally formed in step 7. This is a problem because the product forms before it should and therefore does not reach the enzyme so the energy released cannot be harvested to generated ATP. Arsenate wastes energy by the uncoupling phosphotransfer reaction so its very POISONOUS.
• Ignition location cannot be chosen optimally. • Spark plug electrodes can disturb the gas flow within the combustion chamber. • It is not possible to ignite inside the fuel spray. • It requires frequent maintenance to remove carbon deposits. • Leaner mixtures cannot be burned, ratio between fuel and air has to be within the correct range.
Testing phase finds differences in positive/negative documents by the centroid obtained in training phase by ranking each of them. The simple way to estimate similarity between documents and centroid by summing weights of patterns which are in the documents. VII. Experimental Results To determine accurate measures of similarity or difference between documents you depict results by graph pattern and table pattern. The experimental setup consists of relevant documents that you termed as positive and negative documents .i.e
n this lab, there were four objectives needed to be met. The first one was to perform a genetic transformation procedure, the second was to move genes from one organism to another using a plasmid as a vector, and the third was to manipulate tools of biotechnology. The bacteria E. coli was used to manipulate and transform. The E. coli would be tested for ampicillin resistance and a green fluorescent glow. One hypothesis made for this lab was that the bacteria that developed a resistance to ampicillin would reproduce even in the presence of the ampicillin.