Business associations in Indonesia realized that they were facing very strong competition with products coming from China and this free trade agreement tended to cause harm to particular important domestic-oriented industries. In spite of the advantages and drawbacks experienced by Indonesia in implementing this ACFTA agreement, Indonesia must do more research to find ways to get benefits of this agreement. Indonesia can do three things. Firstly, government and entrepreneurs implement new strategies to strengthen manufacturing industry. The new strategies should focus on industries or sectors in which domestic resources can utilize efficiently and optimally.
ASEAN established a less integrated common market based on the four freedoms at the end of 2015. AEC was introduced from the ASEAN Free Trade Area AFTA established on 28th January 1992. AFTA had a common effective preferential tariff to promote the free flow of goods. AFTA was signed by six founding members Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Vietnam joined 1995, Laos and Burma on 1997 and Cambodia in 1999.
For example, Australia's Telstra and Telkom Indonesia sign a JV for Network Application and Services (NAS), which are both telecommunication and services companies. Telstra choose Telkom Indonesia, not only for its Asia strategy, but also use both company capabilities in Indonesian Information Communication Technology (ICT). Due to ICT in Indonesia rise a lot recent years, and Telkom Indonesia is a market leader in ICT. Thus, Telstra
FTA What is FTA? FTA is a type of regional trade agreements between countries. FTA violates MFN (most favored nation) principle of multilateral trading system and allows an exclusive favor to their member countries. However, as long as they follow requirements, the WTO regulations accept this type of discrimination. They require that no specific trade sector shall be excluded and tariffs and other restrictions shall be lifted principally within 10 years.
If the market access conditions have increase and been influenced by bilateral trade agreements. Trade agreements provide trading partners with lower tariffs. But it have made it harder for developing countries to take full advantage of poverty reduction and rapid growth since the government of particular country will apply different level of tariff rate to similar product depending on their origin. For exporter, markets access not only the disadvantages that the exporter faces to domestic producers and also on the relative pros and cons that it has compared to competitors from other countries (Fugazza & McLaren,
The Fair Trade Organisation ensures that there are various benefits for the world due to the implementation of fair trade. Economic Advantages: • Buyers must pay a standard Fair Trade minimum price that is required to cover the costs of sustainable production (manufacturing processes that are non-polluting, and work towards the conservation of energy and resources). • Gives local production sectors an increased access to export markets. Social Advantages: • Prevents discrimination of social or ethical groups. • Social rights are implemented and work conditions are improved.
antidumping, subsidies, product standards, etc.) — administering and monitoring the application of the WTO's agreed rules for trade in goods, trade in services, and trade-related intellectual property rights — monitoring and reviewing the trade policies of our members, as well as ensuring transparency of regional and bilateral trade agreements — settling disputes among our members regarding the interpretation and application of the agreements — building capacity of developing country government officials in international trade
The EEU allowed Kazakhstan to cement this business interaction among countries. Being landlocked and participation in integration for Kazakhstan creates to access to the seas where the Russian Federation is in role of the transit country. Regional integration in this case is Pareto optimal with benefits from cooperation even though two countries quite different in terms of diplomatic issue, political life and geographical aspects . Future perspectives and weakness of the
In the LLC airline industry AirAsia should implement cost advantage factors in the business. Company should have a strategy to be more capable and flexible in reducing cost, especially overhead cost, that results in higher revenue. Organization size in airline industry can be recognized by the number of passengers that travel using that airline. Likewise, it can be referred to the number of seats that an airline can provide using its fleet. Increasing the number of planes in the fleet can directly increase the supremacy of the company in a targeted market.
SIA also introduces innovations and tracks competitor progress closely from even outside the aviation industry. SIA constantly seeks to make improvements from innovations in hotels, banks, restaurants, retail outlets, and other service industries, seeing what can be adopted or adapted in the airline industry. Marketing research itself has a central role in understanding buyer behaviour. SIA set the benchmark in service excellence and it remains on top of that by constantly innovating and renewing itself by managing service differentiation very well. These all show the very reason why SIA is a leader in the