It consists of bundles of nerve fibers that join the lower parts of the brainstem and the spinal cord with the higher parts of the brain. The midbrain is the center for auditory and visual reflexes and plays a role in controlling wakefulness of the brain. The pons means ‘bridge’ in Latin, therefore it connects the midbrain to the medulla and cerebrum. It plays as an important role in controlling the rate and length of respiration. The medulla oblongata is an extension of the spinal cord as it lies just inside the cranial cavity above the large hole in the occipital bone called the foramen magnum.
Spinocerebellum: it is made up of the vermis and the fastigial, globose, and emboliform nuclei. It receives and integrates sensory impulses. 3. Pontocerebellum: it consists of the lateral hemispheres and the dentate nuclei, It has afferent and efferent connections with the cerebral cortex and the pons via the cerebropontocerebellar. Auditory system: is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.
The spiral-shaped cochlea is part of the inner ear; it transforms sound into nerve impulses that travel to the brain. The fluid-filled semicircular canals (labyrinth) attach to the cochlea nerves in the inner ear. They send information on balance and head position to the brain. The eustachian (auditory) tube drains fluid from the middle ear into the throat (pharynx) behind
The deltoid branch from the thoracoacromial artery that supplies the deltoid muscle can be seen during reflection of the deltoid muscle. (Figures1.1) c. Once the deltoid branch from the thoracoacromial artery was dissected, the coracoid process was located as well as the muscles and ligaments attached to coracoid process as shown in the Figure 1.2. 18.104.22.168 Exposure of coracoid process a. The pectorals minor was dissected from insertion point at the anterior border of coracoid process, lateral to pectorals minor the origin of the coracobrachialis and short head of biceps brachii muscle were dissected as well .Figure1.3 b. Cut the coracohumeral ,coracoclavicular and coracoacromial ligaments from the attachment points around the coracoid process c. Identify the Acromioclavicular joint ,with scalpel incise the joint capsule capsule d. Elevate the lateral end of the clavicle which allows the coracoid process to be exposed and ready to be measured for further
As you can see from the picture below (Figure 7), the cranial nerves (shown in blue) include the facial nerves, oculomotor nerve, vagus nerve, and glossopharyngeal nerve. There are also three spinal nerves in the sacrum which stimulate defection, urination and penile erection. These nerves are often referred to as pelvic splanchic nerves (located at T5 – T12). The parasympathetic system has ganglia in roots of cranial nerves and the neurotransmitter released by the postganglionic motor neurons is acetycholine. After the fire is put out and everyone is safe, acetylcholine works to bring the organs back to homeostasis.
1.5 Functional anatomy of hippocampus The hippocampus anatomically is located in the temporal lobe of the human brain on the medial surface deep inside the uncus. It is a major component of the limbic system. Its name is derived from a Greek word which means “Sea horse”. The curved shape of the hippocampus resembles a ram’s horn and hence Cornu Ammonis (CA). The medial part below the CA forms the dentate gyrus.
There are two main types of neurons: the sensory and the motor neurons. The sensory neurons carry information from the body, to the spinal cord and then to the brain. These neurons carry information that relates to the five senses (touch, pain, taste, etc.). The motor neuron carries responses of the sensory information from the spinal cord and brain to the body. The tracts are bundles of motor neuron axons that send the motor information into the nerves that lead to
In primitive vertebrates the number of aortic arches is greater than 6 and then reduced progressively. The changes in the aortic arches lead to the changes in the heart and ultimately the whole circulatory system. It is the dorsal aorta which is continuous in all embryos gives rise to many aortic arches through its bending. The first aortic arch is named as mandibular, which is present on either side of the pharynx and proceeds upwards. It turns backwards and joins to form the common dorsal aorta.
he later called the Primary Respiratory Mechanism (PRM). In 1900, G.Sutherland then found the school of Cranial Osteopathy (Brooks, 2000). Sutherland then began to study in specific the bony articulations of the skull which he described as the “cranial bowl”, offering the premise that Articular mobility at the cranial base was attributed to the cartilaginous origin of the bones. The “interossous membrane” unites the cranial bones and the sacrum; therefore he believed that if any part of the system moved, all parts would synchronously move because of the fibrous link between the two. The Primary Respiratory mechanism comprises of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, intracranial and intraspinal membranes, cranial bones, spinal cord and sacrum.
Once the sound waves have rounded the corner of the ear canal, they cause the eardrum to vibrate, stimulating the ossicles of the middle ear (tiny bones called the malleus, incus and stapes – otherwise known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup). These ossicles transmit the sound waves to the cochlea. (Bailey, 2013). The cochlea is a fluid-filled structure in the middle ear. The sound waves are translated to fluid waves in the cochlea that are then sensed by nerves connected to fine hairs that float in the fluid and is then sent on to the brain for interpretation.