Factors Affect Language Change

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There are many factors that produce language’s change. One of them is ‘’the presence or absence of imperfect learning by a group of people’’ (Thomason & Kaufman 1988, Thomason 2001: 66-76). The second social factor may be the intensity of contact between these two languages. If both languages are in contact for a long time and they have a greater level of bilingualism, it is likely that structural features will be transferred along with lexical items. The third factor is the speaker’s attitudes. It is relevant to the contact change. The Indo-European languages are a family of languages spoken in most of Europe. They are divided in nine branches: Indo-Iranian, Greek, Italic, Celtic, Baltic, Slavonic, and there are three minor branches: Albanian,…show more content…
As we can see before, there was three branches of Gaelic. One of them is the Irish Gaelic. It is a Celtic language spoken by 138,000 people as a first language. As a second language, there are 1,000,000 speakers in Ireland and 276,000 first-language speakers worldwide. There are evidences that the first inscriptions dated from the 3rd or 4th century in Ogham, the alphabet of twenty letters. In the 5th century, the conversion to Christianity of the Irish people happened and Old Irish began to appear as glosses in Latin manuscripts. Lebor na hUidre and the Book of Leinster are examples of Old Irish language. In the 10th century, this language evolved to Middle Irish and the Early Modern Irish was the period known as the transition between the Middle and Modern…show more content…
Many of the new colonists spoke Norman-French but some of them spoke English. The settlers had a good relationship with the natives and they were quickly assimilated into the Irish speaking world. They too left their linguistic mark on Irish. Many words in Irish were originated from Norman-French, especially legal and military words. Also, there were differences in pronunciation and the accent changed in those areas of southern Ireland where the Normans were strongest, something which still differentiates the dialects

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