As hypothesized, the result revealed that the more insecure employment was, the less workers felt affiliated to society regarding to both within and between effects. Also, social well-being is related to the type of employment. While difference of integrative function between workers with fixed-term and permanent contract was small, that of social well-being still existed. Therefore, they suggest that flexible contracts and low wage can deteriorate social exclusion. They also suggest that future studies investigate the relationship of job security and social cohesion with comparative perspective, considering recent situations after the economic
The volatile economic situation and tougher company expectations have lead to the downsizing, merging, acquisition, and other types of structural change of numerous organizations. All of which may lead to feelings of job insecurity about an employee’s job continuation. (Sverke, Hellgren, & Naswall, 2002 ). With this in mind, researches on job insecurity and its negative consequences have rapidly increased since job insecurity has been proven to have negative outcomes not just for individuals but also towards the organization (Cheng & Chan, 2008). In addition, research on job insecurity have been more significant because of its growing relevance in the workplace (Silla, Gracia, Mañas, & Peiró, 2010).
The external factor refers to factors external to the organization that are beyond its control. External factors can include few forms, such as social, technological, and political. The social environment of the country influences the functioning of the company as it determines the company 's value system. Sociological factors establish the culture of work, labour mobility and the working group. These factors include people 's vision of the new system.
Performance reviews are a must. The HR along with the respective team leaders must monitor their team member’s performance to ensure whether they are enjoying the work or not. Role of Team Leaders and Supervisors in Employee Retention Employee retention includes various steps taken to satisfy the employees so that they stay with the organization for a longer duration. Strong measures must be taken to retain the high potential employees who have spent a good amount of time in the organization and know it in and out. An employee quits his job whenever he faces problems at the workplace and is not satisfied with his work.
Many of their solutions improve efficiency and, ultimately, profitability. Improved employee morale is another advantage of turnover. Disengaged workers sap the workplace of enthusiasm, energy and productivity. When employees who are performing at marginal levels leave the organization, it inspires remaining workers and returns the workplace to a team-oriented work environment where everyone is focused, driven and interested in doing a good job. The strain placed on an organization by managing employees whose presence affects the entire workforce is lifted when those employees are separated from the company.
. The main goal of this report is to identify the various ways and methods for creating a positive work environment for every employ in the workplace. When creating positive energy in the workplace employees will feel more comfortable working and more pleasant moods will be in the air. In addition, the environment surrounding the employees affects their emotions as well as their work performance. Therefore, a positive work environment results in more efficient and effective performance from employees.
Social workers treat each person in a caring and respectful fashion, mindful of individual differences and cultural and ethnic diversity. Social workers promote clients ' socially responsible self-determination. Social workers seek to enhance clients ' capacity and opportunity to change and to address their own needs. Social workers are cognizant of their dual responsibility to clients and to the broader society. They seek to resolve conflicts between clients ' interests and the broader society 's interests in a socially responsible manner consistent with the values, ethical principles, and ethical standards of the profession (National Association of Social Worker) (2018).
Theses factors could be financial, social or organizational factors. In her article she explains that financial factors could be such as the income that the employee receives is lower than expected, or social factors such as the external environment related to the organization indirectly such as the transportation of employees and the conditions of people doing the same job in other organizations. The third and most relevant factor to focus on in this paper is the internal organizational factors. She divided this factor to two categories the first relating to organizational transition where the trauma experienced by employees in firms that are merged or acquired, cultures clash, and coworkers who seem like decent contributors are let go merely because their positions have become redundant. Even in organizations that have not merged or been acquired, employees have learned (from first hand experience in past jobs or vicariously from their neighbors, friends, or relatives) about the stress and anxiety associated with organizational transition.
HR professional role as a strategic partner is more strategically oriented. Strategic HR practices is defined as the process that connect the HR practices to business strategy. In other words, strategic HR is the basis for line managers to create and implement effective HR strategies. HR practitioners has to managing the strategic human resources by establish partnership role with senior and line managements of the organization to contribute to strategy execution. According to Friedman (2009), HR practitioner as a strategic partner must be positioned at a high organizational level.