Factors Affecting ICT Integration

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4. Factors affecting ICT Integration It is acknowledge that the integration of ITC in a fragile area such as teaching and learning is a hard task, since there are numerous factors that impeded this process, and which are known as barriers. A barrier is defined as “any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective” (WordNet, 1997, as cited in Schoepp, 2005, p. 2). In the process of analyzing the factors of ICT, Scholars have first categorized the barriers into specific types. For instance BETCA (2004) has divided the factors to two groups; the first one is the teacher-level barriers which are related to teachers such as lack of confidence, lack of competence, and negative attitudes of teachers. The second category is the school-level barriers referring to the lack of pedagogical training, lack of access, and the lack of technical support. As the aim of the study is to analysis both teacher-level and school-level barriers in order to see how they hinder the integrating of ICT in the educational system, and prevent the technology from reaching the stage of normalization. a. Lack of teachers’ confidence Many scholars show that the lack of confidence prevents teachers from using ICT in their teaching. According to BECTA (2004) several research find that the lack of competence is a major factor since teacher fear from the situation of failure when they use ICT, Beggs (2006) asserted that limited knowledge of ICT by teachers makes them feel worry
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