In addition, Braverman (1974) claims that workers are progressively observed as machines, machines that can be promptly adjusted to the requirements of most any occupation. This perspective of man as a machine, Braverman says, has turned out to be more than a minor relationship. Therefore, it created some social problems that is class struggle. “Braverman 's key contribution was to position the issues of class and history at the center of the analysis of work. He found working environment change in a more extensive comprehension of the specificities of capitalist production, showing the important determining role played by class conflict in forming authoritative result” (Spencer, 2000, p.225).
This brings us to those who are tasked with implementing industrial and organizational psychology, the psychologist (Zedeck 35). There work is a gruesome one because it involves more than understanding the workers, but also their psychological needs. Having all those, helps the psychologist in determining if the worker needs counseling or they are ok with it. To better understand this concept, industrial and organizational psychology is split into two that is industrial psychology and organizational psychology. Industrial psychology focuses on the individuals and their relationship with the workplace like job analysis, safety, training, performances and other related functions.
STRESS MANAGEMENT IN MODERN DAY ORGANISATIONS. INTRODUCTION: Stress management in organizations means various psychotherapies and techniques used to control an individual’s stresslevel. Stress management is important in organizations because if in an organization workers will be stressed, then such workers will work demotivated, inefficiently. And thus, such organizations are not very successful in modern day competitive world. Therefore, in order to improve functioning and productivity of employees as well as to maintain good relationship with co-workers and employers companies have to undertake stress management programs.
It is because of this tension that an individual might react in a way that reduces the tension in him. Job Characteristics Theory Hackman and Oldham (1976); Schermerhorn (1984); Hellriegel, Jackson and Slocum (1999) and Dugguh (2008) cited by Ali et al. (2015: 419) proposed a framework to study how particular job characteristics affect job outcomes and job satisfaction. The framework states that there are a number of core job characteristics that impact on job outcomes and they are: • Variety of skills: it includes the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work and involves the use of different skills and talents of the
In contrast, the data shows that trade union membership and collective bargaining power have dropped more substantially in some countries than in other nations (e.g. Ebbinghaus & Visser, 2000). The industrial relationship literature has historically viewed trade unions and collective bargaining as critical institutions for worker representation, giving voice to workers and balancing power in employment relationships (Müller-Jentsch, 2008). Furthermore, many trade unions and works councils are transformed into key actors for forcing main and necessary changes to be implemented. As example, trade unions play an important role in connecting employees with the firms or the government as well as take several stakeholders’ interests into consideration when dealing with problems (Stollt & Meinert,
As stated by Rummel (1977), Marx observed the society to its main classes, and the struggle amid them as the engine of modification. The arrangement itself was a derivative and ingredient in the conflicts between social classes. As Marx saw the change in class conflict, the brawl between classes were initially narrowed to individual factories. Eventually, the development of capitalism, the rising difference between life conditions of bourgeoisie and proletariat and the aggregate homogenization within each class, individual struggles become generalized to coalitions across factories. Thus, the class struggle is distorted into a working-class revolution.
Weber was worried that this would eventually eradicate the intrinsic element to human existence which is humanity. Marx, on the other hand, argued that modern societies are characterised by capitalism and people who owns the means of production. Marx identified four successive modes of production which are primitive communism, ancient society, feudalism and capitalism. All these production is profoundly influenced by class relations. For instance, people who own the means of production exploit the labour.
Performance of human beings and behaviour when engaged in a particular job is influenced by the psychological and social factors, job condition and the welfare facilities available for them while at work. A man will work efficiently only when he can fulfil all the responsibilities according to his roles in his life. Modern life is full of stress. The changing environment, participation, interaction, transaction, planning, regulation become key issues, each with its own frustration attached. Stress is abundant in our society.
Explain what is meant by a management system Management Systems are systematic frameworks designed to manage an organization's policies, procedures and processes and promote continual improvement within which will achieve the organization’s goals. The industrial relations management system consists of employee relations and human resource management which is required to carry out functions in the industrial relations field. The concept of a system is applied in the perception that industrial relations is based upon the terms and conditions of employment and that trade unions play a dominant role in the industrial relations system. In the field of industrial relations there are factors of labor administration, which deals with relationships among employers, employees, unions and the environment that is made up of political, social and legal factors. When there are grievances, human resource management and Industrial Relations overlap each other because the HRM deals with human resources, whereas dispute settlement and collective relations falls within industrial relations.