Gardner’s 2006 Socio-educational Model of Second Language Acquisition This model has been revised over the years. Consequently, it has several versions which were devised in 1979, 1983, 1985, 2000, 2006, 2007, and 2008. There are slight differences between different versions. As stated above, the socio- educational model assumes that learning a second language is different from learning another school subject because it takes a significant amount of time, and that in any given time period different individuals attain different levels of proficiency. But in the new model proposed by Gardner (2006), he has emphasized motivation as key tenet in second language acquisition.
Language in the communication process not only performs the function of encoding the transmitted information, but also plays a special role in the process of obtaining new knowledge about the world, processing, storage and transmission of this knowledge. This makes language a vital tool not only knowledge of another culture, but also its interpretation and adaptation. The dialectical relationship between language and culture has always been a concern of teachers and educators. Regardless of the language, the culture of the country of studied language should be included in training. Over time, the pendulum of opinions of practitioners swayed "against" or "for" teaching culturein context of language learning.
In most tests, it is normally teachers who construct and administer the test for students. Thus, any good teacher-student relationship would help increase the consistency of the results. Other factors that contribute to positive effects to the reliability of a test include teacher’s encouragement, positive mental and physical condition, familiarity to the test formats, and perseverance (determination) and motivation. The third factors that affect the reliability of a test are the environment factors. An examination environment certainly influences test-takers and their scores.
This field has been extensively explored with the major emphasis on the learners. Various factors that were linked to students’ motivation in language learning were considered during these researches. For instance,
Student’s comment reveals that the visual aids contributed a lot in the learning of vocabulary; given the fact that learning the concept with its picture is easier to remember, in addition, putting the words in a place that the students see them as often as possible help the learners to get in more review and memorize them more easily. On the other hand, based on the students’ perceptions, the hours that they have per class is not enough to cover the vocabulary that they learn per lesson, as the students do not have enough time to practice the vocabulary learnt in the class. Therefore, the interviewee argues that the SLG learners should be aware that it is necessary to learn a language to practice it not only in class but in different contexts. The SLG is not only a responsibility of the teacher but also of the students; since learned a language need autonomous and aware students in order to improve the language that they are
Being able to keep a fluent conversation with a native speaker is viewed as the main goal of this research and it also highlights the importance of speaking skills in a student´s point of view. Therefore, in this research study , four competitive skills of english teacher considered which might be helpful for English teachers and enhance their students´ communicative skills. (Marc.j.Riemer, 2007)English learners no longer expect the traditional approach of their teachers based on developing mainly the grammatical competence and using methodology popular in the past. Today, teachers are expected to provide their students with useful active knowledge of the foreign language, not just theory but about the language. Communicative approach focuses on a balance between fluency and accuracy and is the most suitable for those students whose aim is to gain confidence in speaking and conversational abilities.
In this way, people have different motives to learn a language and so they use different ways to achieve their goals on learning something new. Multiple language learning very often refers to the learning of more than two languages in tutored instruction and this term could be used to refer to the learning of a second or third or fourth foreign language in a natural context, and in this way being multilingual means being proficient in more than two languages (Knapp et al, 2009). . English people had to learn different foreign languages like Latin, French, Dutch, Portuguese and Italian etc., whereas English is learned as a second language all
There is collaboration, communication and equal interaction amongst students and teacher instead of teacher exclusivity. The pros are that students learn important communicative and collaborate skills, directing their own learning, asking questions, independent task completion and are more motivated in the learning activities. The cons are that classrooms might often be noisy, difficulty in managing all student’s activities at once, important information or facts may be missed due to instruction not being delivered at once and preference to work alone for some students. The curriculum The central goal for instructors is to develop a curriculum that develops instructional materials and activities that promotes the maximum growth within the learners. Multidimensional area of investigation that allows the students to explore, discover and make their own choices.
Academic self-efficacy is influenced by cognitive interpretations of success and failure in tasks, but also influences effort, persistence and the cognitive resources that are used in seeking to interact with the academic context. Motivation and efficacy are enhanced when learning progress and comprehension are perceived. Strategies may influence self-efficacy and motivation, and students who believe that a new strategy can improve their performance may keep their initial motivation even if they perceive little progress if the new strategy gives a sense of control over achievement outcomes. In paper I, students who participated in relationships with faculty and student activities increased their perceptions of informal opportunities to influence their study conditions and sense of control, which enhanced their self-efficacy. High self-efficacy perceptions are also believed to make individuals engage in tasks that develop their skills and capabilities, while low-efficacy perceptions make students choose tasks that will not need development of new skills (Schunk, 1991).